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Tyre

Lebanon
Factors affecting the property in 2012*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Housing
  • Illegal activities
  • Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Marine transport infrastructure
  • Other Threats:

    Insufficient maintenance

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Need for an international safeguarding campaign (issue resolved)
  • Construction of a tourist complex (land fill) (issue resolved)
  • Construction project of a large fish market (issue resolved)
  • Construction project of a coastal motorway (issue resolved)
  • Uncontrolled construction  (issue resolved)
  • Project to build a new tourist marina (issue resolved)
  • Road construction project (issue resolved)
  • Need for a Urbain Master Plan for the city
  • Lack of management mechanism (including legislation) 
  • Important and often uncontrolled urban development
  • Public works, tourism developments
  • Absence of a management and conservation plan
  • Insufficient maintenance
  • Major highway development near the property and the redevelopment of the port
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2012

Total amount provided to the property: USD 19,173 (1997-2001) for the International Safeguarding Campaign 

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2012
Requests approved: 4 (from 1986-2001)
Total amount approved : 29,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2012**

2004: Evaluation mission by the UNESCO Office in Beirut; September 2006: UNESCO mission following the 2006 summer conflict; February 2009: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission. 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2012

The State Party submitted on 25 April 2012 a summary of actions implemented in response to the decisions made by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011). The communication mentions that a more exhaustive report would be submitted by May 2012. Additionally, the State Party postponed the dates of the reactive monitoring mission from March to end of May 2012, which would not have allowed its outcomes to be integrated in the documents for the 36th session of the World Heritage Committee. It was finally agreed that the mission would take place in September 2012.

The State Party indicates that the General Directorate of Antiquities (DGA) requested from the Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR), within the framework of the World Bank Cultural Heritage and Urban Development project (CHUD), the recruitment of four qualified personnel to assist the DGA in the conservation and management of the property. The work undertaken includes the inventory of existing documentation and its organisation in one database which is to be integrated in the geodatabase aiming at creating the Archaeological map of Tyre. It is expected that this will serve as baseline documentation for the revision of the boundaries of the World Heritage property and the establishment of buffer zones as well as of the Marine Protected zone. The process will include consultation with the CHUD project and the Municipality of Tyre to assist in the identification of areas of archaeological potential located in the Tyre peninsula. It is expected that a request for a minor boundary modification will be submitted by February 2013.

The communication from the State Party also notes that a new amended request for the Marine Protected Zone is to be submitted to the Council of Ministers, taking into account the latest information to ensure the protection of areas of high archaeological potential. The compiled documentation should also assist efforts for the drafting of a management plan. It indicates that the DGA is working toward the definition of a management framework and strategy while trying to secure funding for the full development of the management plan. The process foresees consultations with the concerned stakeholders, including authorities and civil society representatives.

Finally, the NGO “Association international pour la sauvegarde de Tyr”, has regularly alerted the World Heritage Centre and the media about on-going projects in the property which might affect its Outstanding Universal Value. Only when the mission takes place will it be possible to confirm these alerts.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2012

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note that previous state of conservation and mission reports have pointed out several conditions that could constitute a threat to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. These include the construction of a highway that might affect archaeological resources, the decay of material fabric, urban encroachment and uncontrolled development. They also note that deficiencies in the management arrangements and in the definition and enforcement of regulatory measures have remained unaddressed and have hindered the effective protection of the property from inadequate development. They welcome the information that a management plan is to be developed for the property as well as the information concerning the revision of boundaries and the definition of a buffer zone but note that the limited resources available and the indication that the situation might not improve in the short term, are a matter of concern. Additionally, projects are being implemented, including redevelopment of areas, without comprehensive Heritage Impact Assessments being carried out, which could prove detrimental to the conservation of the attributes that sustain the Outstanding Universal Value of the property.

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note that limited progress has been made in addressing the threats to the property, identified in the reactive monitoring mission report of 2009. This report stated that the overall state of conservation of the property was then in an alarming condition, and could potentially warrant its inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since then, there has been little information to suggest that this overall condition has improved.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2012
36 COM 7B.52
Tyre (Lebanon) (C 299)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.   Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7B.Add,

2.   Recalling Decision 35 COM 7B.51, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3.   Notes the information provided by the State Party on the implementation of actions at the property and urges it to secure the necessary resources to address holistically pressing concerns at the property and to prioritise the development of a management plan;

4.   Also urges the State Party to finalize the process of definition of a buffer zone for the property, including the definition of appropriate regulatory measures, to protect the property from excessive development and to submit a request for minor boundary modification to this end according to paragraphs 163-165 of the Operational Guidelines;

5.   Requests that a Heritage Impact Assessment be carried out for projects being undertaken in heritage areas and that these, along with the technical specifications for the redevelopment projects be submitted, in accordance to Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies prior to approval and implementation;

6.   Also requests the State Party, the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS to organize the foreseen reactive monitoring mission to the property before the end of 2012, in order to assess any changes in the state of conservation of the property since the 2009 mission;

7.   Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013, with a view to considering, in the absence of substantial progress, the possible inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Draft Decision: 36 COM 7B.52

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7B.Add,

2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7B.51, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3. Notes the information provided by the State Party on the implementation of actions at the property and urges it to secure the necessary resources to address holistically pressing concerns at the property and to prioritise the development of a management plan;

4. Also urges the State Party to finalize the process of definition of a buffer zone for the property, including the definition of appropriate regulatory measures, to protect the property from excessive development and to submit a request for minor boundary modification to this end according to paragraphs 163-165 of the Operational Guidelines;

5. Requests that a Heritage Impact Assessment be carried out for projects being undertaken in heritage areas and that these, along with the technical specifications for the redevelopment projects be submitted, in accordance to Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies prior to approval and implementation;

6. Also requests the State Party, the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS to organize the foreseen reactive monitoring mission to the property before the end of 2012, in order to assess any changes in the state of conservation of the property since the 2009 mission;

7. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013, with a view to considering, in the absence of substantial progress, the possible inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Report year: 2012
Lebanon
Date of Inscription: 1984
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)(vi)
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 36COM (2012)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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