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Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra – Significant Boundary Modification

Date of Submission: 21/11/2023
Criteria: (viii)(ix)(x)
Category: Natural
Submitted by:
Indonesian National Commission for UNESCO
State, Province or Region:
Island of Sumatra
Ref.: 6694

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The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.

Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party


Gunung Leuser National Park: UTM Zone 47N
Latitude: 324874.0208 - 447362.3182 N
Longitude: 269225.4979 - 445083.1409 E

Kerinci Seblat National Park: UTM Zone 47 S  
Latitude: 9617757.8886 - 9881279.0905 E
Longitude: 675899.5228 - 917319.8791 S

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park: UTM Zone 48S
Latitude: 9343061.2215 - 9496740.7510 S
Longitude: 322701.7861 – 470425.3486 E

Tarusan Arau Hilir Wildlife Reserve: UTM Zone 47S
Latitude: 9870167.1919 - 9895233.7263 S
Longitude: 660014.6456 - 685664.5750 E

Barisan Wildlife Reserve: UTM Zone 47 S
Latitude: 9895229.7703 - 9945229.6741 S
Longitude: 651587.5747 - 678001.8364 E

Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve: UTM Zone 47 N
Latitude: 258119.4203 – 310439.6582 N
Longitude: 350043.0493 – 370191.5864 E

Barisan Nature Reserve: UTM Zone 47 S
Latitude: 9932632.0766 - 9943216.0506 S
Longitude: 650474.7626 – 657294.5601 E

Aceh Protected Forest: UTM Zone 47 N
Latitude : 325625.6821 – 445573.1652 N
Longitude: 261443.8409 – 357544.2186 E

Bungo Protected Forest: UTM Zone 47S
Latitude: 9796652.5668 - 9804106.0691 S
Longitude: 785926.9987 – 805950.2807 E

TRHS was designated as the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (TRHS) in 2004. TRHS is part of the Bukit Barisan Mountain range, which consists of three national parks: Gunung Leuser National Park/GLNP, Kerinci Seblat National Park/KSNP, and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park/ BBSNP. The area has the magnificent scenery so it is known as the "Andes of Sumatra". TRHS is a complete ecosystem, representing a range of altitude zones, stretching from lowland rainforest to montane forest, extending to sub-alpine low forest, scrub and shrub thickets in GLNP and KSNP. TRHS is home of 4 most valuable and critical endemic species (Sumatran tiger, Sumatran rhino, Sumatran elephant and Sumatran orangutan) as well as the largest flower in the world (Rafflesia) and the tallest flower (Amorphophallus). Based on the World Heritage Committee's decision the TRHS had fulfill 3 of 4 criteria of natural world heritage namely criteria (vii), (ix), and (x).

The 2.5 million hectares of Sumatran Tropical Rainforest Heritage Site has tremendous potential for long- term conservation of Sumatra's distinctive and diverse biota, as well as outstanding climatique refugia value for species. However, the findings from the monitoring mission from 2006 to 2008 indicate the extensive agricultural encroachment, illegal logging, illegal hunting, road construction, and other institutional and management issues in conservation areas. The decline in the function of this conservation area continued until 2011, resulting in the World Heritage Committee decided to inscribe the TRHS on the List of World Heritage in Danger, regardless the corrective action efforts that has been conducted by the Government of Indonesia (GOI).

Since 2006, the World Heritage Committee has requested the GOI to amend the boundaries of the World Heritage property to exclude significantly cleared encroachments and add critical habitats for the conservation of biodiversity. In 2009, the World Heritage Committee made another request to the state party to consider the extension of the property by including habitats considered critical for the key species of the property. The World Heritage Committee (WHC) also takes note based on the 2009 mission report that the GOI needs to perform significant modifications with adjusted boundaries to reflect the OUV of the property due to lack of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) in some areas in the property. Again in 2023, on the paragraph no 12 of the WHC Decision 45 COM 7A.15 stated that the GOI should submit a detailed report on the implementation of the corrective measures, action plan and encourages to continue boundary demarcation of the property as well as to advance a proposal for a significant boundary modification. The proposals for boundary modification should be submitted to WHC to reflect the property's OUVs better. The boundaries of the World Heritage property should be amended to exclude significantly cleared area due to encroachments and to expand critical habitats for the conservation of biodiversity. To submit the request to the World Heritage Committee, formal tentative list and then a new nomination dossier need to be prepared in accordance with the Operational Guidelines of WHC.

Through a spatial analysis process using remote sensing/GIS technology, field observation and series of discussions with park managers, natural forests that have been encroached to human disturbance are proposed to be excluded from the TRHS. The area is 45,526.54 ha area in the GLNP (the Sekoci - Besitang Area, the Badar - Kutacane Area, and the Rantau Sialang Area); about 137,008 ha area in KSNP (the Lembah Surai – Merangin Area, the Pinang Belalui -Rebong Area, Kerinci Area) and about 52,15.84 ha in the BBSNP (Suoh and Sekincau Area). The total area excluded from the world heritage area is 235,250.38 Ha.

As a reflection of the long-term commitment of the GOI to protect the OUV at TRHS as world heritage the following areas are included to compensate the excluding area, namely: part of protection zone of Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve (55,821.79 Ha), part of protection zone of Barisan Wildlife Reserve (46,486.29 ha), part of protection zone of Barisan Nature Reserve (2,505.03 ha), and part of protection zone of Tarusan Arau Hilir Wildlife Reserve Padang – West Sumatra on the side of the KSNP (29,372.98 ha), and part of Protected Forest on the east side of the KSNP (Bungo - Jambi) (8,862 ha), and part of Protected Forest Aceh (93,103.04 ha) in the Leuser ecosystem. The total proposed new area of the TRHS– Significant Boundary Modification is 2,596,026 ha. In comparison to the initial area of TRHS, the area boundary modification is increasing 0.03%.

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BBSNP)

Boundary modification area for the southern Bukit Barisan National Park is 304,084.16 Ha or a decrease of 52,715.84 Ha (14.77%) when it is compared to the initial area. However, the reduction will not reduce the OUV value because all types of ecosystems and important habitats for species still exist. Apart from that, the reduction is carried out while maintaining the integrity of the area.

Based on floristic composition that changes along altitudinal gradients the BBSNP flora can be divided into Lowland and Coastal Forest (0-600 m asl), Highland Forest (600-1000 m asl), Sub-montane Forest (1000-1500 m asl) and Montane Forest (> 1500 m asl). Coastal forest covers around 1% of total park area. Plant species commonly found in this forest type are Terminalia cattapa, Hibiscus sp., Baringtonia asiatica, Callophyllum inophyllum, Casuarina sp., Pandanus sp. and Ficus septica. Meanwhile, lowland forest is known for its high biological diversity. It covers the largest part of the park (45% of the total park area). The lowland forest is dominated by Shorea sp., Dipterocarpus sp., and Hopea sp., with shrub trees such as Urophyllum sp., Phyrnium sp., Korthalsi sp., and Calamus sp. Algae species found in coastal area of the park include Sargassum gracillum, Acanthopora 37 species, Hypnea musciformis, Sargassum echinocarpum, Turbinaria ornata, and Thallasis sp. Meanwhile, the highland forest covers 34% total the park area. Plant families dominant in the highland forest are Dipterocarpceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae and Annonaceae, with shrub trees such as Neolotsia cassianeforia, Psycotria rhinoceritos, Areca sp. and Globba pendella. Sub-montane forest (1,000-1,500 m asl) covers 17% total the park area. Plant species from the tree families of Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Dipterocarpceae and Fagaceae, such as Magnolia sp., Quercus sp., and Garcinia sp., are found in the submontane forest. Montane forest (1,500 m asl and above) covers about 3% of total the park area. Eugenia sp. and Castanopsis sp. are dominant species in the montane forest.

Preliminary surveys have revealed that BBSNP harbors up to 98 mammal species under the family names of Erinaceidae, Tupaiidae, Cynocephalidae, Pteropodidae, Hipposideridae, Vespertilionidae, Mollosidae, Lorisidae, Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, Manidae, Sciuridae, Pteromydae, Muridae, Hystricidae, Caniidae, Ursidae, Mustelidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Felidae, Elephantidae, Tapiridae, Rhinocerotidae, Suidae, Tragulidae, Cervidae, Bovidae and Leporidae. Twenty-five mammal species under the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species have been identified, namely Manis javanica (LR), Cheiromeles torquatus (LR), Nycticebus coucang (DD), Macaca nemestrina (VU), M. fascicularis (LR), Presbytis melalopus (LR), Hylobates agilis (LR), H. syndactylus (LR), Cuon alpinus (VU), Helarctos malayanus (DD), Lutrogale perspicillata (VU), Aonyx cinerea (LR), Cynogale bennettii (EN), Prionailurus viverrinus (LR), planiceps (VU), Catopuma temmincki (LR), Pardofelis marmorata (DD), Neofelis nebulosa (VU), Panthera tigris sumatrae (CR), Elephas maximus sumatranus (EN), Tapirus indicus (VU), Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (CR), Capricornis sumatraensis sumatranensis (EN), Hystrix brachyura (VU), and Nesolagus netscheri (CR)

The park has at least one Sumatran endemic mammal species (after the list of Whitten et al.,2000): Nesolagus netscheri. The survey results have also confirmed that the park is a safe haven for around 370 bird species, including 9 hornbill species, namely Anorrhinus galeritus, Aceros comatus, A. corrogatus, undulates, Anthracoceros albirostris, A. malayanus, Buceros bicornis, B. rhinoceros, and B. (Rhinoplax) vigil. BBSNP has at least 7 Sumatran endemic bird species (after the list of MacKinnon & Phillipps, 1993): Chloropsis venusta, Dendrocitta occipitalis, Dicurus sumatranus, Cyornis ruckii, Polyplectron chalcurum, Pitta venusta, and Malacocincla vanderbilti.

The park supports a herpetofauna diversity comprising at least 59 species under the following family names: Agamidae, Bufonidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Emydidae, Geckonidae, Lacertidae, Microhylidae, Pelobatidae, Rachophoridae, Ranidae, Scincidae, and Viperidae. They include four threatened turtle species: Manouira emys (EN), Heosemys spinosa (EN), Orlitia borneensis (EN) and Malayan Notochelys platynota (VU).

Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP)

Boundary modification area for the Kerinci Seblat National Park is 1,238,342 Ha, or a decrease of 137, 008 Ha (9.96%) when it is compared to the initial area. Likewise, the OUV are maintained the same because all types of ecosystems and important habitats for species still exist. Apart from that, the reduction is carried out while maintaining the integrity of the park. KSNP represents a lowland ecosystem (150 m asl) to upper montane ecosystem with the peak of Mount Kerinci reaching 3,805 m asl.

Based on floristic composition that changes along altitudinal gradients, KSNP flora generally divided them into Lowland forest (150-200 m asl), Hill forest (300-800 m asl), Sub-montane forest (800-1,400 m asl), Lower montane forest (1,400-1,900 m asl) and Upper montane forest (2,400-2,900 m asl):

Lowland forest is characterized by Dipterocarpus sp., Shorea atrinervosa, and S. multiflora. Meanwhile Hill forests are characterized by Dipterocarpaceae, Fagaceae and Burseraceae. The most abundant species in hill forest is Hopea cf. beccariana. Sub-montane forest characterized by Myrtaceae and Fagaceae. Two forest facies variations occur in sub-montane forest, namely Bamboo and Garciana. The tallest flowers in the world, Amorphophallus titanum, and A. gigas, both species are often encountered in the park at altitude below 900 m asl.

Lower montane forest is characterized by Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Theaceae, and a number of Sapotaceae. The undergrowth is particularly rich in Myrsinaceae. Mid-montane forest (1,900-2,400 m asl): The forest is characterized by Quercus oidocarpa, Vermonia arborea, Symingtonia populnea, Drypetes subsymetrica, Gordonia buxifolia, Weinmannia blumet and Polysma integrifola, Olea javanica. Archidendron clypearia, Platea excelsea, Lithocarpus pseudomoluccus and Myrsine hasseltii.

Upper montane forest is characterized by Symplocos cochinchinensis var. sessifolia, Ilex pletobrachiata, Ardisia laevigata, Meliosma lanceolata, and Cyathea trachypoda. Sub-alpine thicket (2,900 m asl and above). This vegetation type is dominated by Ericaceae (Rhodendron retusum, Vaccinum miquelli and Gaultheria nummularoides) and Symplocaceae (Symplocos cochinchinensis).

Karst forest is identified in Sebelah Hill near Dareh River, Sawah Lunto Sijunjung, in the Park area. The karst forest is situated in the hill slopes of 500 m elevation, and is dominated by Aglalia, argentea, A. gonggo, Dysoxylum macrocarpum, Cratoxylum sumatranum, Schoutenia furfuracea, Dracontomelon dao, Margaritaria indica, Macaranga tanarius, Ryparosa javanica, Dyospyros toposoides, D. apiculata, Celtis philippensis, and Vatica cf cinerea, Picrasma javanica, Casearia tuberculata, Drimycarpus luridus, Stelechocarpus cauliflorus, Cyathocalyx sumatranus and Paranephlicum xestophyllum.

Regarding the biodiversity of fauna, at least 85 mammal species are identified included Elephas maximus sumatranus (EN), Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (CR), Panthera tigris sumatrae (CR) and other important twenty-three mammal species under the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species : Hylomys parvus (CR), Crocidura beccarii (EN), Manis javanica (LR), Presbytis melalophus (LR), Macaca fascicularis (LR), M. nemestrina (VU), Hylobates agilis (LR), H. syndactylus (LR), Nesolagus netscheri (CR), Maxomys hylomoides (LR), Hystrix brachyura (VU), Helarctos malayanus (DD), Cuon alpinus (VU), Aonyx cinerea (LR), Panthera tigris sumatrae (CR), Neofelis nebulola (VU), Pardofelis marmorata (DD), Catopuma temminckii (LR), Tapirus indicus (VU), and Naemorhedus sumatrensis (VU). Among them at least 5 species in the park are identified as Sumatran endemic mammals: Hylomys parvus, Nesolagus netscheri, Maxomys inflate, and M. hylomoides.

KSNP is also habitat of many bird species. Up to 370 bird species occurs in the park. They include nine species of hornbills: Anthroceros albirostris, A. malayanus, Anorhinus galeritus, Aceros undulates, A. corrugatus, A. comatus, Buceros rhinoceros, B. bicornis, and B. (Rhinoplax) vigil. Among of the species up to 58 bird species under the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

The park has at least 13 Sumatran endemic bird species, namely Arborophilia rubrirostris, Lophura inornata, Polyplectron chalcurum, Pitta schneideri, P. venusta, Chloropsis venusta, Pycnonotus leucogrammicus, P. tympanistrigus, Dicurus sumatranus, Dendrocitta occipitalis, Napothera rupifectus, Cochoa beccarii, and Myiophoneus melanurus. Little is known about the diversity of reptiles and amphibians. Preliminary surveys by Fauna & Flora International (FFI) in partnership with Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) discovered almost 40 species of toad (anurid), some yet to be specifically identified.

Gunung Leuser National Park (GLNP)

The GLNP landscape represents lowland to high mountain ecosystems. From its elevation range it can be divided into 4 types of ecosystem, namely; 1) Lowland tropical forest area (< 600 m asl) covers approximately 12% of the total area (2) Coline zone and submontane tropical forest (600-1500 m asl) covers 48% of the total area, (3) The lower tropical montane forest (1500-2400 m asl) which covers an area of 35% of the total area, and (4) The upper tropical montane forest/sub alpine (above 2400 m asl) which covers 5% of the total area. At least 33 hills and mounts, have been identified in the Park area. Some of the highest peaks include Mt. Blang Beke (2,729 m), Mt. Perkinson (2,828 m), Mt. Willow (2,858 m), Mt. Bipak III (3,009 m), Mt. Treasurer (3,012 m), Mt. Loser (3,119 m), Mt. Ketambe (3,120 m), Mt. White Coral (3,370 m), Mt. Kemiri (3,314 m), Mt. Simpali (3,383 m). The highest peak is Mt. Leuser (3,466 m).

Vegetation in GLNP can be divided into the five main types as follow: (1) Coastal vegetation occurs only sporadically in the Park. The vegetation is characterized by Casuarina, and Barringtonia Pandanus sp., Nypa fruticans, Salix tetrasperma and Pericampylus glaucus. (2) Lowland and colline forests. It mainly concerns mixed dipterocarp forest, and contains relatively abundant Ficus, Annonaceae, Meliaceae, and above all many species of Euphorbiaceae, (3) Vegetation of the sub-montane zone: The forest is rich in Lauraceae and Fagaceae. Sanicula europaea, Lobelia montana, Viola sp., Anemone sumatrana, and Lysimachia montana, (4) lower montane forest which is rich in rattans and some other lower palms, and Fagaceae, Rodoleia, Exbuclandia, and mosses, (5) upper montane forest whereas Diplicosia, Gaultheria, Podocarpus, Rhodendron, and Vaccinium can be found.

Survey results have revealed that GLNP contains fauna species ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes and invertebrates. At least 174 mammal species have been recorded in GLNP under the family names of Erinaceida, Soricidae, Tupaiidaeae, Cynochepalidae, Pteropodidae, Rhinopomatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Vespertilionidae, Lorisidae, Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, Canidae, Ursidae, Mustelidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Felidae, Elephantidae, Rhinocerotidae, Suidae, Traguilidae, Cervidae, Bovidae, Sciuridae, Muridae, and Hystricidae (Van Strien, 1996). Among of them twenty-one mammal species under the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, namely Macaca fascicularis (LR), nemestriana (VU), Presbytis thomasi (LR), Hylobates lar (LR), H. syndactilus (LR), Pongo abelii (CR), Cuon alpinus (VU), Helarctos malayanus (DD), Aonyx cinerea (LR), Lutra lutra (VU), Cynogale bennettii (EN), Neofelis nebulosa (VU), Panthera tigris sumatrensis (CR), Elephas maximus sumatranus (EN), Dicerorhinus sumatraensis (CR), Capricornis sumatraensis (VU), C. sumatraensis sumatraensis (EN), Lariscus niobe (LR), Maxomys hylomoides (LR), Rattus hoogerwerfi (VU), and Hystrix bracyura (VU). The Park also harbors 3 Sumatran endemic mammals namely, Presbytis thomasi, Maxomys hylomoides, and Rattus hoogerwerfi.

The park also can be found 57 species of herpetofauna under the family names of Crocodylidae, Trionychidae, Testudinata, Agamidae, Geckonidae, Scincidae, Varanidae, Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Crotalidae, Elapidae, Pelobatidae, Buffonidae, Ranidae, Rhacophoridae, and Caeciliidae. Regarding bird species, there area 380 bird species have been identified in GLNP. The list includes up to 80 % of Sumatra's 438 resident breeding species. Moreover, the park has at least 53 bird species under the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Protection Zone of Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve

Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve is an ecosystem type dominated by rare peat swamps that were not previously represented in the TRHS. The depth of peat in this ecosystem can reach more than 7 m. The types of ecosystems in this protective zone are fresh water and forest, mangrove and riparian.

In this area there are 20 types of mammals, 3 types of mammals are classified as critically endangered, namely the Sumatran orangutan, Sumatran tiger and pangolin, then 4 types are classified as endangered or endangered, namely the sun bear, ungko (gibbon), gibbon and beaver, and 3 species classified as vulnerable to extinction (vulnerable), namely beruk, sambar deer and kedih. Also identified: 157 bird species identified, 52 of which have protected status, including the Plank Hornbill (Buceros bicornis), Rhino Hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), White-bellied Kangkareng (Anthracoceros albirostris), Black- crested Hornbill (Aceros corrugatus), Tong-Tong Stork (Leptopthillus javanicus) and Storm Stork (Coconia Stormi). Apart from that, 5 species were found to be migrant species, of which 4 species migrated from the northern hemisphere to Indonesia, namely the Chinese Kingfisher, Red Cangak, Forest Kicuit and Mugimaki Flycatcher. The Buffalo Egret is a type of bird that migrates from the northern and southern hemispheres to Indonesia.

In this nature reserve, 15 species of herpetofauna were identified as inhabiting the Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve area. The turtle (Heosemys spinosa) and labi-labi (Amyda cartilaginea) are listed as vulnerable and the swamp frog (Limnonectes malesianus) is listed as near threatened according to the IUCN red list (2017). Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve is also a habitat for estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus)

Barisan Wildlife and Nature Reserve (BWR & BNR)</p>

The ecosystem of BWN Reserve & BNR are categorized as a rainforest a mixture of non-dipterocarp which are subdivided accordingly to altitudinal changes into: lowland forests, sub-montane forests, montane forests and sub-alpine forests. The reserves also home of many birds, namely : Accipiter badius (Elang Alap Shikra), Butastur indicus (Elang Kelabu), Circus spilonotus (Elang Rawa Timur), Haliastar indus (Elang Bondol), Ictnaetus malayensis (Elang Hitam), Pernisa ptilorhynchus (Sikep Madu Asia), Spilormis cheela (Elang Ular Bido), Actenoides concretus (Cekakak Hutan Kekuwai), Alcedo anthis (Raja Udang Erasia), Halcyon chorosis (Cekakak Sungai Kecil), Pelargopsis capensis (Pekak Emas), Bubucul ibis (Kuntul Kerbau), Anthracoceros abirostris (Kangkareng Perut Putih), Berenicornis comatus (Engggang Ekor Abu-Abu), Buceros rhinoceros (Rangkong Badak), Rhinoplax vigil (Enggang Gading), Ciconia episcopus (Bangau Sandang Lawe), Falco tinnunculus (Alap-Alap Eurasia), Aethopyga temminckii (Burung Madu Ekor Panjang), Anthreptes simplex (Burung Madu Polos), Anthreptes singalensis (Burung Madu Belukar), Anthreptes malacensis (Burung Madu Kelapa), Arachnothera robusta (Pijantung Besar), Nectarina sperata (Burung Madu Penganten), and Argusianus argus (Kuau Raja).

The reserve also play roles as habitat of Panthera tigris Sumatrensis (Harimau Sumatera) and other mammals, such as Capricornis sumatrensis (Kambing Gunung), Cervus unicolor (Rusa), Muntiacus muncak (Kijang), Cynopcephalus veriegatus (Lemur Terbang), Felis bengalensis (Kucing Hutan), Felis planiceps (Kucing Ikan), Neofelis nebulosa (Kucing Dahan), Hystrix brachyura (Landak), Nycticebus coucang (Kukang), Manis javanica (Trenggiling), Ratufa bicolor (Kerawak Hitam), Rattus rattus, Aonyx cinnera, Sus scrofa (Babi Hutan), Tapirus indicus (Tapir), Tragulus javanicus (Pelanduk), Tragulus napu (Napu), Helarctos malayanus (Beruang Madu), Arctitis binturong (Binturung), and Prinodon linsang (Linsang), Viveria tangalunga, Hylobates agilis (Ungko), and Hylobates syndactylus (Siamang).

Tarusan Arau Hilir Wildlife Reserve

Tarusan Arau Hilir Wildlife Reserve is considered to be included in the world heritage because its landscape is directly connected to the KSNP. According to its location, this ecosystem type in Tarusan Arau Hilir Wildlife Reserve is divided into 3; lowland forest (200 – 700 m above sea level), mountain rain forest with an altitude of 700 m - 1,600 m above sea level and high mountain rain forest (high mountain rain forest) with an altitude of 1,000 to 2000 m above sea level.

In this area, 24 types of mammals belonging to 12 families have been reported, some of which are included in the protected category. Several types of mammals, especially those that are frugivorous (fruit eaters), such as bats, civets, gibbons and ungko play an important role in the regeneration of tropical rain forests through seed dispersal. Wildlife that has been reported in this area include Hylobates agilis (Ungko/Gibbon), Helarctos malayanus (Honey bear), Arctictis binturong (Binturung), Prionodon linsang (Linsang), Felis bengalensis (Forest cat), Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded cat), Panthera tigris sumatrae (Sumatran tiger), Tragulus javanicus (Herlanduk, Napu), Cervus unicolor (Deer), Muntiacus muncak (Antelope), Manis javanica (Pangolin), and Hystrix brachyura (Porcupine).

The documented bird species are mostly insectivorous species and fruit, seed and nectar eaters, some of which have protected status by law. Apart from that, there are 7 species from the Accipitridae family and 1 species from Falconidae which in the food chain is categorized as a top predator and 2 types of birds from the Nectaridae family which function to help pollinate flowers.

Protection Forest of Unit III, Bungo-Jambi

Biodiversity data and information of this protection forest is very limited, however, this protected forest is well known as habitat of the tallest flower in the world (Bunga Bangkai/ Amorphophallus titanum (Becc.). The forest is also habitat of protected birds such as rangkong (Bucerotidae). Limited access due to the topographic condition make this protection forest is still untouched.

Protection Forest Unit V & VI of Aceh

The forest of the protection forest is part of the Leuser ecosystem. Both of the protected forest are connected with the GLNP. Therefore, the biodiversity condition is relatively similar to the GLNP. Limited access due to the topographic condition make this forest is still untouched.

Criterion (vii): The parks that comprise the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra – Significant Boundary Modification are all located on the prominent main spine of the Bukit Barisan Mountains, known as the ‘Andes of Sumatra’. Outstanding scenic landscapes abound at all scales. The mountains of each site present prominent mountainous backdrops to the settled and developed lowlands of Sumatra. The combination of the spectacularly beautiful Lake Gunung Tujuh (the highest lake in southeast Asia), the magnificence of the giant Mount Kerinci volcano, numerous small volcanic, swamp peat forest, coastal and glacial lakes in natural forested settings, fumaroles belching smoke from forested mountains and numerous waterfalls and cave systems in lush rainforest settings, emphasis the outstanding beauty of the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra. With the addition of the Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve in the boundary modification, criterion attribute (vii) will become more complete with the beauty of the peat swamp ecosystem which is decorated with very unique flora species of fresh water swamp ecosystem.

Criterion (ix): The Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra - Significant Boundary Modification represent the most important blocks of forest on the island of Sumatra for the conservation of the biodiversity of both coastal, mangrove, lowland, riverine, mountane forests and upper montane ecosystem. With the addition of the Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve, the representation of the ecosystem and attribute criteria (ix) will be more complete with the existence of a rare peat swamp ecosystem on the west coast of Sumatra. Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve is part of Leuser Ecosystem whereas the Leuser Ecosystem, including the Gunung Leuser National Park, is by far the largest and most significant forest remnant remaining in Sumatra. All three parks would undoubtedly have been important climatic refugia for species over evolutionary time and have now become critically important refugia for future evolutionary processes especially under climate change in which habitat species are tend to shift to higher elevation. The additional of areas in the Barisan Nature and Wildlife Reserve, Tarusan Arau Hilir Wildlife Reserve, and Rawa Singkil Wildlife Reserve further adds to the representation and expand the important ecosystems at TRHS- significant boundary modification.

Criterion (x): All area that comprise the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra - Significant Boundary Modification are areas of very diverse habitat and exceptional biodiversity. The TRHS is also home of many endemic species of flora. The nomination area contains of both the world’s largest flower (Rafflesia arnoldi) and the tallest flower (Amorphophallus titanum (Becc)) in the world. It is also habitat of critically endangered species, namely sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) (CR), sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus ) (EN), Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis )(CR), Panthera tigris sumatrae (CR), and other important twenty-three mammal species under the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

The conditions of integrity are met by the diverse of ecosystem and natural habitats for a large number of flora, fauna species and ecosystems, including threatened and endemic species of universal values found in each of the proposed area, and also the elements essential for the long-term conservation of the ecosystems and biological diversity they contain. The elements range from the sufficient size of each proposed area, the diverse elevation above sea level, diverse ecosystem, the soil types, the hydrologic condition, the ever-wet climate, the legal status supporting the establishment of the proposed area (three National Park, nature reserve, wildlife reserve and protected forest), as well as the presence of management authority and management plans.

Comparison with other similar properties

The geology of the TRHS is typical of the region. The TRHS includes two sample transects across the Sumatran subduction zone with largely intact naturally vegetated landscapes, incorporating sections of the uplift, rifting and volcanic zones. KSNP provides a transect with a very clearly defined rift valley and associated volcano, the largest in Indonesia. Whilst these represent important earth science values, they are features that are widespread throughout the region, and are not the basis of a distinctive claim for outstanding universal value. From a biodiversity and ecological perspective, there is no comparable area within Indonesia, although a cluster forest site in Borneo has been nominated for examination in 2004/2005. However, the TRHS has significantly higher mammal diversity than the island of Borneo, which lacks many of the larger Sumatran mammals, which are endemic to that island. Although many of the Asian mammals once extended further east in the archipelago, extensive clearing, intensive agriculture and other human activity has progressively eliminated at least the larger mammals and their habitat from Bali and Java. The only other existing large World Heritage site in Indonesia is Lorentz National Park in Papua which is located in a completely different biogeographic realm (Australian realm).

Although Ujung Kulon National Park World Heritage site is just across the Sunda Strait from BBSNP, its very much smaller size and lesser biodiversity, means that it does not compare with either BBSNP or the TRHS nomination as a whole. There is also little basis for comparison with the Komodo National Park World Heritage site in eastern Indonesia where the primary values are the endangered ‘komodo dragon’ species and adjacent marine areas.

Looking more widely, none of the mainland Asian sites exhibits the effect of sea-level oscillations on the on-going biological evolution, evidenced by the high level of endemism in Sumatra. Indeed, the TRHS needs to be compared with other places in the South Eastern Asian biogeographic region, as well as elsewhere in the tropical world. At the global level, the biodiversity of the TRHS nomination compares very favorably with that of other World Heritage sites.