Jinggangshan--North Wuyishan (Extension of Mount Wuyi)
National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
North Wuyishan Component：Yanshan County, Jiangxi Province Jinggangshan Component：Ji’an City, Jiangxi Province; Yanling County, Hunan Province
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Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party
North Wuyishan Component：N27 56 00 E117 47 00
Jinggangshan Component：N26 30 00 E114 05 00
Description of the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi
At the 23rd meeting of the World Heritage Committee in December 1999, Mount Wuyi was accepted to be inscribed on the World Heritage List. The property meets Criteria iii and vi of world cultural heritage and Criteria vii and x of world natural heritage.
The heritage site is located in Wuyishan city of Fujian province, taking Mount Huanggang, the southeast slope of the main peak of Wuyi mountains in Eastern Mainland China as the main body. Wuyi is a coastal range, which belongs to the eastern monsoon climate zone of Asian Continent. The area of the heritage site is 635.75 km2, while the buffer zone covers 364 km2. The main peak Mount Huanggang with an elevation of 2158 m, falls on the boundary of Fujian Province, which is the highest peak of subtropical regions of Eastern Eurasian Continent, distributing the vegetation types from monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest to sub-alpine meadow, which forms an abundant horizontal and vertical band spectrum, and there is a bio-rich and relatively intact biota and ecosystem.
The cultural heritage within the heritage site mainly includes: the “Gumin nationality ” culture and the later “Min-Yue nationality” culture and “Neo-Confucianism” . Unique highlights include“boat coffins in cliff caves", and burial accessories, Min-Yue King Han City Ruins, the tomb of Zhu Xi and sites of ancient Academies. Mount Wuyi is not only the birthplace of Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism, but also the place where it thrives to its peak.
Description of the Nominated Property
Two components, which cover the east slope and west slope in middle section of Luoxiao mountains and the north slope of Wuyi mountains, are proposed to constitute the Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan as an extention of the existing mixed World Heritage site Mount Wuyi. Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan and the existing World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi both belong to the same geotectonics unit , the same physical geography region, and the same general culture, but they are different from each other in terms of their physical geographies, mountain ecosystems, biodiversity, natural landscapes and local culture, and they show different aspects of the outstanding universal values of the Palaearctic Realm Chinese Subtropical Forest province and Southeast China-Hainan Ecoregion. Both together constitute a fuller representation of intact mountain ecological system, habitats of flora and fauna, and local culture. Designation of Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan as an extension will ensure greater habitat integrity and connectivity of Southeast China-Hainan ecoregion.
As a whole, the nominated property and the heritage site including Wuyi mountains on the east and Luoxiao mountains on the west are linked physically via the hills of the Nanling range that forms the headwater of the Poyang Lake Basin and Dongting Lake Basin. Parts of Nanling range may merit addition to the serial site at a future date.
The nominated property Jinggangshan - North Wuyishan consists of two components; Jinggangshan Component and North Wuyishan Component, the total area of the nominated property is 788.68 km², and that of the buffer zone is 536.94km². Among which, Jinggangshan component covers the east slope and west slope of the middle section of Luoxiao mountains, including Jinggangshan region and Taoyuandong region, the area of the nominated property is 629.35 km2，and the buffer zone covers 400.68km². North Wuyishan Component covers the north slope of the middle section of Wuyi Mountains which borders with the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi to the south, the area of the nominated property is 159.35 km2, and the buffer zone covers 136.26 km2.
The two components constitute not only the catchment areas of the first and second freshwater lakes of China (Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake), but also one of the water supply regions of the two major paddy rice production areas in southern China. The two components respectively represent the physical geographies, ecosystems, biodiversity, natural landscapes and local culture characteristics of the north slope of Mount Wuyi and the east and west slopes of Luoxiao range in southeast China, but they are irreplaceable with each other. The nominated property is rich in terms of biodiversity of east Eurasia, and is the important passage for higher plants and vertebrates from south to north immigration and from east to west spread in east monsoon zone of China. It is the outstanding biological refuge of the Tertiary and Quaternary Glacial Age, which is also the cradle for species re-diffusing in the Post Glacial Age. It is internationally listed as an Important Bird Area and Endemic Bird Area. It is the refuge and differenting center for amphibians and reptiles in east Asia. It is one of the “Global 200 Ecoregions” identified by the World Wildlife Fund. It is the key region to study bio-geography, species alternation and differentiation in east Asia. It is the indispensable and important complement to the natural habitat and biodiversity of Mount Wuyi. The nominated property and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi together incorporate the extremely diversified, largest and the most representative Chinese middle subtropical forest and southern tropical monsoon rain-forest in the monsoon zone of eastern China mainland. It forms more intact horizontal and altitudinal vegetation spectral bands, which is the typical representative of the integrity of ecological system and natural vegetation zones of east China mainland, belonging to the most outstanding subtropical forest of the world. The nominated property preserves a large number of ancient relict plants species, relict associations, species endemic to China, abundant amphibians and reptiles, birds and mammals, among which many are endemic, rare and endangered species. The nominated property possesses many thermophilic species and associations, such as butterflies, orchids, ferns and mosses, and it also preserves the most diverse coniferous forests in south China. The differences and distribution pattern of species in different mountains and catchment areas provide unique records for the evolution of ecology.
The cultural heritage part of the nominated property consists of two components: North Wuyishan Component and Jinggangshan Component. The former takes Er’hu Academy as the main body. The latter includes Baikoucheng Site, Philosophy Scholars ruins in Ming and Qing Dynasties (including Jinggangshan academy architectures and tombs). The two components and the cultural heritage of Mount Wuyi form serial cultural heritages, which are all belonged to a whole zone of the same natural and cultural heritage.
Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan, as the extention of Mount Wuyi, the declaration way is to extend the region of the property, namely Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan is nominated under common criteria (iii), (vi), (vii) and (x) of World Natural and Cultural Heritage.
Justification of Outstanding Universal ValueCultural Heritage
From Wuyishan to Jinggangshan, there are lofty mountains and high ranges both east and west sides, uplands, plains and river networks in the middle part, which is the important rice cultivating cultural area and granary in China. It is also the main destination that ancient northern peoples migrate to south in China, thus breeding profound and widespread impact of “Luling Culture” and becoming the crucial place of the construction and development of Neo-Confucianism andYangming’s School of Mind , and the cradle of Chinese Rural Revolution at the beginning of the twentieth century. The cultural heritages within the nominated property have complementarity and continuity with the cultural heritages of World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi, which all fall within a large canyon, and have commonality and homogeneity in clan characteristics, cultural traditions and heritage characters.
The nominated property and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi all fall within the central region of Gumin Nationality and Guyue Nationality cultures. The “Boat Coffins in Cliff Caves” within the nominated propertyexist in the form of “Hanging Coffins” in North Wuyishan Component. They all belong to the life remains of the same branch of “Baiyue” Nationality. In the 1st century BC, two large administrative capitals and living capitals were built in MountWuyi and the nominated property Jinggangshan Component respectively. The former preserves more color of “Minyue”nationality, while the latter takes more local administrative color under centralization. The two sites are complementary in construction styles and functions, and both of them are population center of water network areas in southern China. The Luling Culture region which takes the site as the center is known as the “the state of Civilization and Righteousness” and “the state of Confucianism”.
The nominated property Jingganghshan Component is the crucial place of the construction and development and inheritance center of Wang Yangming’s School of Mind System. In 1510 AD, Wang Yangming was the magistrate of Jinggangshan region, he lectured in Qingyuanshan of Jinggangshan region and had a lot of followers. Then he laid out the Jiangyou Wang Ology and gradually Qingyuanshan became the headquarters of the dissemination of Wang Yangming’s Shool of Mind, Thus it was awarded “the state of Neo-Confucianism”, which enjoyed widespread renown. Afterwards, Jiangyou Wangmen scholars lectured in the local and made it becoming the dissemination center of School of Mind in the whole country. Qingyuanshan is the crucial place of the construction and development of Wang Yangming’s School of Mind System, the maintaining and guarding place of it and the important area to push it to the peak. In terms of ontology and methodology, Wang Yangming’s School of Mind has carried on the reform and innovation for Neo-Confucianism, its ideology system has a profound influence on China and the world. The World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi and the nominated property North Wuyishan is the cradle of Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism of Song Dynasty. In 1175 AD, Zhu Xi who lived in E’hu Academy of North Mount Wuyi Component within the nominated property and famous philosophers Lu Jiuling and others (came from northern areas) talked about and debated on the basic thoughts and ideas of Neo-Confucianism, which promoted the further improvement and mature of Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism. E’hu Academy also becomes the landmark architecture of Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism, thus initiating the precedent of the debating of Chinese Neo-Confucianism. The Neo-Confucianism and Wang Yangming’s School of Mind all advocate the ethics of the life style, and painstakingly to maintain the social order of the local, therefore, they have a clear relevancy and complementarity .
The cultural heritages of the nominated property and World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi, commonly bear people’s collective memories, which are not only the crucial place of the construction and developmentof Neo-Confucianism (Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism”, “Yangming’s School of Mind”), but also the first practice place of modern China’s Rural Land Reform Thought.In terms of architectural landscape, Mount Wuyi and the nominated property also belong to the same type, namely, on the basis of confusing China ancient Hui-style architectures then forms common local characteristics.
The nominated property Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi are both located in the Palaearctic Realm Chinese Subtropical Forest province and Southeast China-Hainan Ecoregion, they present the physical geographies, mountain ecosystems, biodiversity and natural landscapes of the two most important mountains in southeast China -- the south slope and north slope of Wuyishan Range and the east and west slopes of Luoxiao Range, which represent the outstanding universal values of the subtropical forest in southeast China from different perspectives. They together incorporate the extremely diversified, the largest and the most representative Chinese middle subtropical forest and tropical monsoon rain-forest in east Asia Continent. And they have abundant horizontal and altitudinal vegetation spectral bands, which is the typical representative of the integrity of ecological system and natural vegetation zones of east China, belonging to the most outstanding subtropical forest. It is also internationally listed as an important Bird Area and Endemic Bird Area. It is the protective and differential center of amphibians and reptiles in east Asia. It is one of the “Global 200 Ecoregions” that confirmed by World Wildlife Fund. It is the key region to study bio-geography, species alternation and differentiation in east Asia.
In terms of biota, the nominated property and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi are located in the third-level ladder of Eastern Mainland China, belonging to East China biota, and is also a key region of East China biotas, which not only presents the integrity and diversity of biotas in east and west slope of Wuyi Range and Luoxiao Range, but also reflects the effect of habitat diversity on biota formed by Xiang River watershed, Gan River watershed and Min River watershed. In addition, both of them have distinctive complementarity. Firstly, coniferous trees of North Wuyishan is characterized by Pseudolarix amabilis, Cryptomeria fortunei, Cephalotaxus sinensis and Platycladus orientalis, While that of Jinggangshan Component is characterized by Abies ziyuanensis, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus argotaenia and Pseudotaxus chienii. Being affected by the cold monsoon of Center China and Northwest Yunnan, Jinggangshan Component added more transition elements of temperate zone at the middle-high altitude, and it preserves the typical ravine monsoon rainforest or named south rain-forest, or monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest at low altitude, which is the only example of the middle subtropical regions in the globe, which presents the outstanding universal values of the geological and biological co-evolution and ecosystem co-evolution of the two mountains from different aspects. The extension of Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan is the important supplement to the heritage values, natural habitats and biodiversities of the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi.
The nominated property site consists of North Wuyishan Component and Jinggangshan Component. The south of North Wuyishan Component borders with the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi, which takes the peak of Mount Huanggang (the highest peak in the sub-tropic area of east Eurasia) as the boundary. While Jinggangshan Component is situated in the middle section of Luoxiao Range, which is on the border of Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces, including the east and west slopes. The nominated property is an essence part that possesses the most heritage value in the subtropical zone of East Eurasia, it is one of the most beautiful regions of natural landscape.
The nominated property preserves the richest type and the most complement spectrum mid-subtropical original forests ecosystem in the same latitude of the world, covering ravine southern rainforests, mountain evergreen broadleaved forests, defoliated broadleaved mixed forests, evergreen bushes, meadows and other vegetation types from low altitude to high altitude areas. The monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest developed in the low altitude, is the typical example of “super zonal communities” that the monsoon forest from “India-Malaysian Kingdom” extended toward the north. Its species diversity indexes, tropical elements are far more than those of the mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest communities in the same latitude or similar latitude, which show the specific bio-geographical characteristics of tropical rain-forests and monsoon rain-forest regions in terms of physiognomy, composition, construction and succession sequence, which is the typical southern rain-forest preserved in the subtropical region. It presents a stronger tropical characteristics in local areas, for example, the epiphyllous liverworts stretched 3-5 kilometers in Xiangzhou Basin, tree ferns synuisa, Cyatheaceae, Gymnosphaera hancockii in the local area of Hexilong valley, and variety of orchids in valleys and palisades form 3-5 kilometers orchids belt that are distributed intermittently. In the middle and low altitudes distribute the typical warm southern coniferous rare relict plant communities, which is the important supplement to the natural heritage values of World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi
The nominated property is rich of biodiversity in east Eurasia, providing the suitable habitat for lots of ancient relict species, rare and endangered species, species endemic to China, species endemic to micro-habitats and endemic relict communities, which accumulates various floristic elements. It is the natural laboratory to reveal the evolution of biota, the changes of paleo-geology and paleo-geography in Glacial Age and Post Glacial Age, which is also one of the most important regions to protect the rich biodiversity of mountains in southeast China.
Criterion (iii): A series of cultural heritages within the nominated property, including the large administrative center and living center--Baikoucheng Site which was built in the 1st century B.C., E’hu Academy--the landmark ancient building that represents the complement of “Zhu Xi” Neo-Confucianism system in the 11th century, academy architectures of local colors and ancestral halls, grave sites of philosophies witnessed the whole process of the later period of Confucianism Ideological System. The entailed life skills, survival wisdom, philosophy of life of the cultural sites, together with the cultural sites of Mount Wuyi, constitute a complete system, which has the commonality and homogeneity of cultural inheritance and cultural value.
Criterion (vi): Wuyishan is the birthplace and cradle of Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism in the 11th century, while Jinggangshan Component is the crucial place of the construction and development of Wang Yangming’s School of Mind System, the maintaining and guarding place of it and the important area to push it to the peak, where is also the place to practice School of Mind for hundred of years. The philosopher groups which takes Wang Yangming as the representative inherit and develop Confucian’s Confucianism and Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism in Mount Jinggang Component. Therefore, Confucianism thoughts form complete Confucianism System, which has a continuous effect on ethnics and morality of China, the far Eastern countries and governments over much of the world for many centuries. Confucianism and School of Mind have the common features of “Unity of Knowledge and Practice”. Philosophers especially emphasis on participation and management of rural social affairs, and it became one source of Jinggangshan Rural Revolutionary practice at the beginning of the 20th century. E’hu Academy and vernacular academy architectures of Ming and Qing Dynasties have unique memorial significance for they witness the above events.
Criterion (vii): The nominated property excellently combines the queer peaks and lofty mountain ranges- goreas and rivers-waterfalls-forestand other landscapes of ancient continental folded mountain in Eastern Asia, together with the seasonal changes of colors, which displays the unique and picturesque natural beauty of mountains in southeast Eurasia. The grandeur peaks and mountains, graceful canyons and streams, lush forests and bamboos, vast sea of clouds and other natural landscapes, the primitive forests that are rich of relict plants of the Tertiary, crown of rhododendron forests above cliffs and crags, and various vertical vegetation spectrum and mountain environments form seasonal changes of numerous colors, which constitutes the natural and marvelous landscape of biological refuge and echoes the beautiful scenery of Nine Bends Stream of Mount Wuyi that was listed into the World Heritage List, and together incorporate a magnificent natural landscapes Hundreds of years, people create numerous legends, verses, musics and drawings to eulogize North Wuyishan and Jinggangshan. At present, the nominated property is one of China’s most representative landscapes that with excellent aesthetic values.
Criterion (x):The nominated property North Wuyishan Component and Jingangshan Component respectively develop the typical altitudinal natural spectrum of the north slope of Wuyi Mountains and the east and west slopes of Luoxiao Mountains in southeast China, which is a mutual complementation to the altitudinal natural spectrum in the south slope of Wuyi Mountains that developed in Mount Wuyi in southeast China. They together constitute intact mountain altitudinal natural spectrum in southeast China, which becomes the natural habitat and the refugee in Tertiary and Quaternary for mountain endemic and rare plants in southeast China.
The nominated property falls within Chinese Sub-tropical Forest Biome of the Palaearctic Realm of the Udvardy (1975) Biogeographical Classification, and belongs to middle sub-tropical humid monsoon climatic zone.It is rich of biodiversity, which is the important passage for higher plants and vertebrates from south to north migration and from east to west dispersal in east monsoon zone of China. It is internationally listed as an important Bird Area and Endemic Bird Area. It is the protective and differential center of amphibians and reptiles in east Asia. In the history of paleogeography and paleogeology, it is far away from the coverage of the Quaternary glacial, thus preserving lots of ancient, relict and endemic communities, which is also the cradle for species re-dispersal in Post Glacial Age. It is one of the “Global 200 Ecoregions” that confirmed by World Wildlife Fund. It is the key region to study bio-geography, species alternation and differentiation in eastern Eurasia. The nominated property is situated in an ecotone of complicated habitats and diversified ecosystem types. The natural vegetation include 12 vegetation types, 90 formations and 180 associations, which including 9 kinds of primary habitat types, 35 kinds of secondary habitat types and 53 kinds of various complicated ecosystem types, almost covering all kinds of habitat types except marine. The complicated land-forms and diversified niche spaces of the nominated property and the unique edge effect that formed in macro-scale land-forms, providing a refuge for biodiversity. The monsoon evergreen broadleaved forests with southern subtropical characteristics that developed at the low altitude ravines of Mount Jinggang Component is an enclave formed by the “Indo-Malayan Realm” (Udvardy,1975) monsoon rain-forests toward northern extension, which is the important complement to the outstanding natural heritage value of World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi .
Within the nominated property, there are 338 families, 1398 genera and 4252 species of higher plants, among which, there are 597 species of Bryophytes, 378 species of Pteridophytes and 3,277 species of Spermatophytes, up to 27 species of coniferous trees, 197 species of ancient relict plants and living fossils, 214 species of rare and endangered plants, 1253 species endemic to China. There are 44 species of plants on the IUCN Species Red List, 110 species of plants listed on schedules of CITES (2011), and 144 species of recorded plants in China Species Red List. There are 47 species of local endemic plants. And there are 32 orders, 110 families and 601 species of vertebrates, among which, 68 species are endemic to China, 44 species on the IUCN Species Red List, 76 species listed by CITES (2011), 8 species of local endemic mammals and more than 4,200 species of insects. There are about 1,940 species (under 810 genera and 223 families) not recorded from the exisiting World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi, and about 168 species of vertebrates not recorded in World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi.
Statements of authenticity and/or integrity
Most of regions of the nominated property are in a state of nature and sparsely populated. With little human interference, local endemic species, rare and endangered species and habitats are well preserved. The nominated property possesses enough area, including all the elements of heritage values of Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan, which is enough to ensure the stability of ecosystems and the continuity of natural evolution. The nominated property and the buffer zone are clearly demarcated on maps and on-site, and have completed the demarcation of piles. There are seasonal tourists and few unreasonable tourist facilities at the edge of the nominated property, which will not influence the integrity of the heritage values of the whole.The underground cultural heritage sites within the nominated property are well preserved, ithas abundant unearthed relics and well protected measures of the underground reserve, with specific centers to protect them. The overground academy architectures of Ming and Qing Dynasties and memorial architecture sites all keep the original structures and appearances. The living facilities, furniture, traditional production tools, kinds of written materials and other appliances all keep the original state, which can also represent the local social relations and intangible cultural heritage and traditions at that time.
Comparison with other similar properties
Comparison with Natural Heritage Value
The nominated property and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi belong to mid-subtropical humid monsoon climatic zone, which are characterized by monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests in east Asia, representative endemic species, rare and endangered species relict species, rare relict plant communities. It has distinctive heritage values because of the differences in biological diversity and natural landscapes in folded mountains formed by the geographical differences in the intersection of middle subtropical and southern subtropical zones when compared with the heritage sites in eastern mainland China, large mountains in southeastern Asia and other mountains in the same latitude in the world.
Comparison with Other Aesthetics Landscapes Heritage Sites (criterion vii)
The common features between the nominated property and World Natural Heritage Sites of aesthetic landscape types in the same latitude is the natural beauty and wonders of “mountain-water-forest”. While there are differences in physical geography and the uniqueness of landscapes .
Comparison with Other Mountainous Heritage Sites in Sub-tropical Zones in Mainland China
The World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi is not only famous for the winding Nine-Bend Stream, the outstanding natural wonders of red rocks and steep peaks on both sides, but also possesses beautiful landscapes of southeast slope of Mount Wuyi. While North Wuyishan Component of the nominated property will more fully presents the spectacular volcanic peaks and vast sea of clouds of Mount Huanggang- “The ridge of east China”; and the crossed tranquil gullies, streams and waterfalls, the natural landscapes of lush forests of the great rift valley of Mount Wuyi.
Wulingyuan Heritage Site is composed of Quartz stand-stone land-forms, which is renowned in the world for its grotesque peaks and weird stones of Quartz sandstone forests and karst geomorphological landscapes. WhileJinggangshan and Taoyuandong of the nominated property is superior in green sand-stones and grotesque peaks and canyons in the fold mountains in Ancient Land of East Asia, the gallery of primitive forests, winding mountain creek waterfall groups and other landscapes. Its outstanding and unique natural aesthetic values and other heritage sites have their own merits.
The landscapes of other heritage sites have their own special characteristics, namely, China Danxia, South China Karst, Mount Huang and Mount Sanqing respectively feature Danxia, karst and granite, which fused mountains, water, vegetation and other scenery, forming diversified and fabulous landscapes. While Jiuzhaogou and Mount Huanglong are famous for the fairy scenery that are formed by color pools, snow mountains, canyons, forests and tundras. Three Parallel River and Giant Panda Reserve are renowned in the world for their highland snow peaks, canyons and rapids, forests and meadows, glacial lakes, refugees of endemic, rare and endangered propagation, outstanding folk customs and other extraordinary scenery.
Comparison with Other Mountainous Heritage Sites in Sub-tropical Zones in the Northern Hemisphere of the World
When compared with the five large-scale mountain heritage sites in the same latitude of the world , they are distinctly different in landscapes of “mountain-water-forest”. India's Nanda Devi National Park, Great Himalayan Mountains National Park and Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal are characterized by the glacial land-forms of Himalayas, which take snow-capped mountains, glaciers, coniferous forests and deciduous forests of temperate-frigid zone and alpine meadows as the main landscape types. Great Smoky Mountains National Park in east America features eastern mountains, canyons, waterfalls, primitive temperate forests. Spain's Teide National Park features high altitude volcano land-forms landscapes of islands, which possesses changing clouds and volcanoes, various ecosystem landscapes of natural evolution sequences that from green shade trees to desert rocks. Compared with these sites all Chinese subtropical zone is significantly more humid, greener and more filled by water features.
Comparison with Other Heritage Sites of Biodiversity Values (criterion x)
According to Udvardy (1975) “Global Biogeographical Classification”, the nominated propety and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi belong to Chinese Subtropical Forest Province. The other seven heritage sites in the same latitude under criteria x belong to four different biogeographical Province, : China Three Parallel Rivers belongs to Sichuan Mountainous Province (number 2.39.12); Sichuan Giant Panda Reserve, Mount Huang and Mount Emei-Leshan Giant Buddha all fall within Eastern Deciduous Forest Province (2.15.5); India Nanda Devi National Park, Great Himalayan Mountains National Park are Himalaya Province (2.38.12); United State Great Smoky Mountains National Park lies in Eastern Forest Province (1.5.5). What’s more, the nominated property and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi all fall within Sub-tropical Forest Biogeographical Province of China. While Jinggangshan Component lies in the southern edge of subtropical zone, which is more characterized by South China Rain forest when compared with Mount Wuyi. For its rich biota, there are 1940 species are not recorded in the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi. It features diversified and characteristic ancient relic species, rare and endangered species and species endemic to China, which becomes the indispensable and important area of biodiversity and natural habitats in the same latitude.
Comparison with Cultural Heritage Value
Comparison between Sites of Philosophy and Memorial Vernacular Architectures and Related Cultural Heritage (criterion vi)
On the World Heritage List, the heritage sites under Criteria vi are: The Bikini Atoll old nuclear test site in Marshal is a symbol of the arrival of the nuclear era; the historic prison site in Australia is “ the best existing proof of expelling criminals from their countries in large scales and European power’s colonial expansion through banishing criminals and forced labors”; Aapravasi Ghat in Mauritius is regarded as the origin of modern contractual labor and the current global economic system”; Robben Island in South Africa is a symbol of its segregation policy; the Island of Goree in Senegal witnesses the malicious colonialism and transportation of negro servants; American Independence Hall is listed into the World Heritage List as a symbol of independence; Mostar old town and bridge in Bosnia and Herzegovina emphasize the infinite achievements human beings have attained when working together to confront great catastrophes for the sake of peace and solidarity”.
As we take a view of the above heritage sites, they have acquired Outstanding Universal Valuesbecause they either witness certain global events, or connect with the establishment of certain modern systems, or record the great historic moment of certain local groups. When compared with Mount Wuyi which features Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism in Fujian Province that has been listed into the World Heritage List, the cultural heritages within the nominated property which is characterized by the large-scale academies which take E’hu Academy as the representative, Jinggangshan vernacular academy architectures and tombs of philosophers of the cultural heritages should also enjoy the equal cultural heritage significance and value.
Comparison Between the Landscape of Memorial Vernacular Architectures within the Nominated Property and Other Cultural Heritage Sites (criterion iii)
The village landscapes and architectures. In the World Heritage List mainly contains Korean historic villages: Heihui Village and Liangdong Village, Hungary Holloko Historic Village and its surrounding regions, Ashnati Traditional Architecture in Ghana, Togo-Koutammakou Landscape, Morocco Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou, Japanese-Kawa Village and Wuqishan Historic Village, Dutch Rietveld-Schroder House, China Anhui Ancient Villages: Xidi and Hong Villages, China Fujian Adobe, China Kaiping Watchtower and Villages, North Syria Historic Village Groups, Decorated Farmhouse of Halsingland in Sweden, etc. Among which, the most comparable architectures with Jinggangshan memorial vernacular architectures within the nominated property is China Anhui ancient villages: Xidi Village, Hong Village and Fujian Adobe.
China Anhui Ancient villages represent Hui-style dwellings of the economically and culturally developed regions in the south of the Yangtze River. Fujian Abode is a typical representation of large-scale defensive dwelling mode and rammed earth technique in Hakka house in the southeast of China. As the architectural forms at the transition region between southern Hakka culture in the traditional society and indigenous residents in developed regions in the south of China, when compared with the above ones, Jinggangshan memorial architectures within the nominated property presents unique architectural art. While in layouts, construction materials and decoration methods, it is distinctively different from Hui-style architectures, which is especially suitable for the environment of small plain in mountains. These vernacular architectures not only constitute the unique landscapes, but also present the overlapping effect of architectural culture in different regions.
Large-scale City Architectures Heritage Sites. As an ancient administrative center, which has the most comparability with Baikoucheng Sites within the nominated property is the remains of Han Dynasty City of World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi among the large-scale architecture heritage sites of cities in the same unit. The similarities and differences between them lie in: Baikoucheng Site belongs to large-scale city site of prefecture-level administrative unit in Qin and Han Dynasties, which is first discovered in the sites of the same period with the same nature in ancient China society; while the remains of Han Dynasty City of Min and Yue rulers in Wuyishan Component belongs to the feudatory architectures sites, which are different in functions and are complementary to each other, commonly presenting ancient large-scale city architecture sequence of South China. The water drainage and supply system of the remains of Han Dynasty City takes advantage of natural slopes and valleys, which shunts rain and sewage. While Baikoucheng Site was built at the bank of Gan River, it lies in an important position that in the upstream of Gan River, which makes full use of the Gan River to maintain its moat river, and supplies residential water after leading the water of Gan River into the city. It is the typical example of ancient city construction in water network of southern China. The remains of Han City has more color of Min and Yue minorities, just like the unique “Dry-Column construction”. While Baikoucheng Site belongs to local administrative center under centralization, the architectural forms reflect hierarchy between inner city and outer city, which is the representation of ancient Chinese Confucianism hierarchical thought in large-scale constructions.
In neighboring countries, The Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks and Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area are located in the Xanth Culler mountain and west Himalayan regions of India. Though these two sites share some similar alpine species with the nominated property, the endemic ungulates of alpine meadows of the plateau are absent, and the vegetation zone is different. In Kazakhstan, Saryarka – Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan is home to the last Saiga (Saiga tatarica) herds. The lakes in the site are key stopovers for migratory birds. The high altitude mountains are absent and totally different species occur. The “Tajik national park：The mountains of Pamir” in Tajikstan is nominated for the significant landscape, geological structure and biodiversity of Pamir Knot. The diversity of plants but the cushion plant is higher than the nominated property. The zoological community is different from the nominated property, too. The trans-boundary site Uvs Nuur Basin of Russia and Mongolia is an enclosed basin located at the northernmost corner of Central Asia. It accommodates the typical biotic community of the steppe in the east Eurasia, which is different from the community of the nominated property.
In the world, the natural heritage sites with migrating terrestrial mammals bearing OUV includes Kluane / Wrangell-St. Elias / Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek in North America (shared by Canada and the U.S.), the Putorana Plateau of Russia, and the Serengeti National Park of Tanzania. The former two share similar arctic biotic community, with same species of migratory herds (caribou/reindeer). Anyhow, the full migratory routes have not been included in either site, while caribou/reindeer is a widespread species around the Arctic Circle. The Animal Migration in Serengeti has worldwide fame, but the full migratory route is not included either, while the species there is widespread in the Sub Saharan Africa. There are full migratory routes of endemic and endangered animals in the nominated property.