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Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep

Date of Submission: 06/10/2009
Criteria: (ix)
Category: Natural
Submitted by:
Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia
State, Province or Region:
South Sulawesi, Maros and Pangkep Regency
Coordinates: S4 42 49 - 5 06 42 E119 34 17 - 119 55 13
Ref.: 5467

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In general, the karst landscape is hilly and has mountainous terrains. The mountainous area is situated in the north east or located in the Bulusaraung Mountains. The highest peak of the mountain is 1,565 m above sea level in the northern side of Bulusaraung Mountain. This side of the mountain has a steep slope with rough texture. The climate in the Maros Pangkep area is tropical with the dry season between the months of November to April meanwhile the rainy season runs from May to October. The temperature ranges from 210 C - 310 C or on average 26.40 C, with fluctuating humidity. The area of the Pangkep conservation forest covers around ± 21.631 hectares from the total forest area of 32.503 hectares. Most of the conservation forest is within the karst area that is part of the National Park of Bantimurung and Bulusaraung (Babul).

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

In view of the potential of Karst Maros-Pangkep area to be nominated as a World Heritage under the criteria in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the Word Heritage Convention, the criteria to be considered as the basis for the world nomination is:

(ix) Contains natural habitat that has significant value and is important for biodiversity conservation including endangered species that have universal values from the point of view of science and conservation. Mengambarkan masterpiece dan kecerdasan intelektual umat manusia

The Karst Maros-Pangkep area illustrates a sample that represents important values of continued knowledge development in the history of earth, fresh water and coastal ecosystems as well as biota and fauna community as indicated by the following:

The Karts Maros-Pangkep Area not only presents a unique landscape but also has archaeological sources of prehistoric caves and its heritage that date back to  housands of years ago.

In the Karts Maros-Pangkep Area there are various types of flora among others: Bintangur (Calophyllum sp.), Beringin (Ficus sp.), Enau (Arenga pinnata), Nyato (Pala quium obtusifolium), and several from the familiy of  Homalanthus, Lagerstroemia, Pterospermum, Kleinho via, Villebrunea and numerous endemic flora among others the Sulawesi black wood (Diospyros celebica) and Sepang wood or Sappang (Caesalpina sappan) which is used by the local people as a drink mixture. The typical wild fauna that are endemic found by researchers and biologists from the Indonesian Institute of Science and from France are among others the Black Monkey (Macaca maura), the Sulawesi possum kuskus (Phectarelanger celebencis), the Sulawesi civet weasel (Macrogolidia mussenbraecki), deers (Cervus timorensis), the black Enggang bird (Hectarelsion cloris), Swiftlet swallows (Aeroramus fluaphectaregus), Bats (Megachiroptera), butterflies (Papilio blumei, Papilio satapses, Troides hectarelipton,), various types of amphibia and reptiles such as the python snake (Phyton), Leaf snake, Large Lizards (Paranus sp.), cave bees (Eustra Saripaensis), Troides helena reticulates Cave crabs (Cancroecea Xenomorpha Ng.), Cave scorpions (Chaerilus Sabinae Lourenco) and several aquatic fauna such the Isopoda Aquatic and Cirolana Marosina.

In this region there are hundreds of caves with stalagtits and stalagmit, of which 89 of them are prehistoric caves that contain prehistoric Rock Art Painting, prehistoric stone tools, kitchen waste consisting of shells from an ancient Mollusca. The Karts Maros-Pangkep Area covers an area of 43,750 hectares that comprises of a mining area of 20,000 hectares and the remaining 23,750 hectares are part of the conservation area of the National Park of Bantimurung Bulusaraung.

Other potentials of the Karts Maros-Pangkep Area are:

a. The home industry: for example the people already have skills to make woven mats, woven containers for cooked rice, head covers (saraung), rice covers, hats baskets, to produce brown sugar and other products. The main ingredients and tools to make these products are derived from surrounding environment, such as the leaves of a certain palm tree (enau), rumbia leaves (for sago), palm leaves to be woven into mats, meanwhile the brown sugar is made from the flower sap of a special type of palm tree (lontar and enau).

b. The tradition to go down to the paddy fields: Similar to the agrarian people of South Sulawesi, the people of the Maros-pangkep also have a tradition to go down to the paddy fields. The ritual starts from the tudang sipulung, choosing the seedlings, planting the seedlings, weeding the paddy fields, maddongi, and the tradition of mappadendang. The tradition of Mappadendang follows several steps and the most interesting part is at harvest time when the young start mating and finally marry.

c. In addition to these traditions, there are also cultural arts from the region namely the traditional dances. From the Maros Regency tehre are traditions and dances such as the Ma'raga dance, Mappadendang dance, Ma'kampiri dance, Salonreg dance, Pepe-pepe dance, mamuri-muri dance, Tubaranina dance, Marusu dance, and the celebration the Muharram month, and the birth of the prophet Muhammad, Appalilli, Katto Bokko, Decorated boat competition, Mallangiri, Kalubampa Dance, and Kesong-kesong dance.