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Kathmandu Valley

Nepal
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Air transport infrastructure
  • Earthquake
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Housing
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Underground transport infrastructure
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Earthquake (Severe earthquake of 25 April 2015)
  • Housing (Uncontrolled urban development resulting in the loss of traditional urban fabric, in particular privately-owned houses)
  • Management systems/management plan (Lack of a coordinated management mechanism)
  • Ground transport infrastructure (Construction of a forest road)
  • Underground transport infrastructure (Project for tunnel road in Pashupati Monument Zone)
  • Air transport infrastructure (Project for the extension of the Kathmandu International Airport)
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount granted: USD 10 million (1979-2001) from the International Safeguarding Campaign; USD 45,000 (2005) and USD 20,000 (2011) from UNESCO/Netherlands Funds-in-Trust. Several UNESCO extra-budgetary projects have been approved in 2015-2016 for the emergency safeguarding, conservation and rehabilitation process of the Kathmandu Valley after the 2015 earthquake. They include USD 1 million from the Chinese Hainan Airlines Group (Cihang Foundation), USD 250,000 from the Hong Kong based Fok Foundation, USD 145,000 from the UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust, USD 100,000 from the Nepal Investment Bank, and USD 18,000 from voluntary contributions to the World Heritage Fund

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 16 (from 1979-2015)
Total amount approved : 417,619 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

February 2003: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS mission; April 2007: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; March 2011: UNESCO Advisory Mission with international experts; November 2011: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; October-November 2015: joint World Heritage Centre /ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission; March 2017: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission; October 2019: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

A joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission visited the property in October 2019 (mission report available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/121/documents/). On 29 January 2020, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation and on 3 March 2021 additional information and an update on works completed within the seven Monument Zones were submitted. Both reports are available at the above-mentioned address. The following has been reported:

  • The Government of Nepal are committed to the rehabilitation of the property and to the protection of its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV);
  • A process has commenced to revise the Integrated Management Framework (IMF). Assessments by the Institution of Engineering and ICOMOS Nepal will inform the updating of the Recovery Master Plan (RMP) and the IMF. The IMF will address the long-term management of architectural and town-planning coherence. The RMP will also be reviewed and the previous six-year plan will be adjusted accordingly;
  • The State Party has endeavoured to address issues raised by previous Reactive Monitoring missions and Committee decisions and progress has been made towards completion of repair of earthquake damaged monuments within the seven monument zones. The 2021 update includes a detailed table of works completed, together with a detailed photo inventory on progress with some 103 monuments affected by the earthquake, including those where conservation works have been completed. But the documentation has not been submitted in advance for review, as outlined in the 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission report;
  • A ‘Cultural Heritage Information Management System (CHIMS)’, comprising a database and a documentation system, has been established within the Department of Archaeology;
  • The socio-economic recovery of the Monument Zones will continue to be monitored. Further economic revitalization of the urban communities will be initiated;
  • Recommendations from the April 2019 ICOMOS Technical Review of the Patan Durbar Square Monument Zone sewer project are being implemented;
  • Capacity building training focused on earthquake recovery has been provided to Department of Archaeology officials, in collaboration with a range of international partners, including UNESCO, ICCROM and ICOMOS;
  • Assistance will be provided to traditional artisans to pass on skills and knowledge, and master craftspeople will be honoured. Documentation and research will occur on traditional building technology and knowledge;
  • The Public Procurement Act processes will be reviewed and provisions adopted to ensure the required expertise in traditional construction methods using traditional artisans to ensure the quality of conservation projects. Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) procedures will be established;
  • Heritage management of the Monument Zones will be brought under a single authority to ensure the protection of the attributes conveying the OUV, following a single Master Plan adopted by the Department of Archaeology (DoA). The capacity and organization of the DoA will be reviewed;
  • Community involvement will be promoted, particularly for site monitoring, maintenance, and safeguarding of intangible heritage.

The State Party proposes to establish a new International Scientific Committee to facilitate collaboration and the international community is requested to assist through workshops and research, focused on technical issues such as structural assessment of traditional load-bearing structures, and materials dating and testing.

The State Party remains committed to collaborating with the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies to implement previous recommendations of the Committee and considers that it is not necessary to include this property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Meanwhile, on 22 April 2020, the World Heritage Centre wrote to the State Party to request that the proposed rehabilitation project of Lal Baithak, located in the Bhaktapur Monument Zone of the property, be halted pending the submission of further documentation and a thorough technical review by the Advisory Bodies. On 12 August 2020, the World Heritage Centre wrote to the State Party, relaying concerns regarding the appropriateness of the proposed New Master Plan for the Pashupati Protected Monument Zone. The State Party confirmed, on 3 March 2021, that the proposed New Master Plan for the Pashupati Protected Monument Zone had been withdrawn. On 16 December 2020, the World Heritage Centre wrote to the State Party regarding the proposed ring roads expansion of Swayambunath in the vicinity of the site and potential impact on the Swayambunath Temple Complex. No formal response has been received by the World Heritage Centre to either of these requests, although the 2021 update states that the World Heritage Centre will be informed if the Ring Road causes any impacts.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

The support expressed by the Government of Nepal for the conservation of the property is welcome, as is the establishment of the International Scientific Committee. The 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission acknowledged that there has been substantial progress towards the recovery of the property and its OUV. However, although many previously identified issues and Committee decisions have been addressed, others remain outstanding and continue to affect adversely the property’s state of conservation.

The integrity of the urban and religious ensembles is being recovered progressively through reconstruction, utilizing traditional materials, methods and skills. Proposed changes to the Public Procurement Act support this process. However, in some places, authenticity has been affected by the introduction of new materials (e.g. addition of lime to mud mortar) and the reconstruction of some buildings based on conjecture instead of sufficient supporting evidence. Concern remains about the poor condition of the Hanuman Dhoka Durbar and Bhaktapur Durbar Palaces, the Changunarayan complex and Vishwarupa Temple (Pashupati). Focus on particular monuments at the expense of other attributes continues to have adverse ramifications for traditional urban housing and ancient settlements. The reconstruction of these elements using flat-roofed, concrete framed structures (as per the new building codes) has resulted in buildings of very different forms, compared to their historic counterparts.

The advice from the State Party that the recommendations from the April 2019 ICOMOS Technical Review of the Patan Durbar Square Monument Zone sewer project are being implemented is welcome, but confirmation and documentation of the project has not been received. The Committee should re-iterate its previous request that the State Party prepare Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA) for proposed major new urban infrastructure projects within the Monument Zones and buffer zones, in accordance with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, and submit them to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies before any decision is made that would be difficult to reverse. For all rehabilitation, reconstruction and/or development projects, the State Party should be encouraged to use the approach outlined in the 2011 UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL), which should also be reflected in all relevant planning documents.

The RMP has been used to guide recovery from the effects of the 2015 earthquake, in conjunction with the adopted Conservation Guidelines and the six-year recovery programme coordinated by the National Reconstruction Authority (NRA), but it does not provide specific guidance on the recovery of each of the seven individual Monument Zones, which are all very different in their attributes, values, uses, associated communities and intangible heritage. The State Party has proceeded apace with repair of many monuments across all seven monument zones, but is yet to develop and implement Recovery Master Plans for the seven Monument Zones, in accordance with previous decisions of the Committee. The review of the IMF remains outstanding and is now urgent, and the State Party’s commitment to allow for a comprehensive review with expert advice is welcome. The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that the Committee may wish to welcome the State Party’s confirmation that the proposed New Master Plan for the Pashupati Protected Monument Zone had been withdrawn. 

The term of the NRA expired in late 2020; to ensure the ongoing and successful recovery of elements, it is important that coordination between the Department of Archaeology, other government departments and authorities, site managers and community stakeholders, is maintained. Therefore, the decision to review the Department of Archaeology and bring heritage management of the Monument Zones under a single authority is appropriate.

The State Party has endeavoured to address issues raised by previous missions but is yet to comply with the Committee decisions requesting the submission of documentation for review and other measures, as outlined in the 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission report. Remaining threats to the property include the ongoing deterioration of structures that have yet to be repaired, a lack of attention to urban and ancient settlements, loss of traditional housing, unsympathetic new developments around Monument Zones, uncontrolled development within monument and buffer zones, the impacts of new urban infrastructure, the lack of master planning and values-based conservation management planning, the need for cyclical maintenance programmes and disaster risk management planning, the potential demolition and replacement of Lal Baithak, Bhaktapur, and implications of the proposed Swayambunath ring roads expansion.

These outstanding issues continue to threaten the property’s integrity, authenticity and other attributes bearing the OUV. As highlighted in previous reports to the Committee and in previous Reactive Monitoring mission reports, the dangers to the property continue to meet the conditions set out in Paragraph 179 (a) for inclusion of a property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. The 2017 and 2019 missions both note that the property meets the conditions for inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger and identify a ‘desired state of conservation’ for the property, along with proposed corrective measures. However, these have not yet been approved by the Committee, as the Committee has not to date inscribed the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. The 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission confirmed that the recovery process remains inadequate to deal with the challenges that have arisen following the 2015 earthquake, and it is recommended that the Committee consider again the inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. The Committee could also adopt the following Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and the corrective measures identified and drafted with the State Party during the last two Reactive Monitoring missions, namely:

#

Target

Rationale

Means of Verification
(to be submitted to WHC)

Timeline
(due dates)

1.

Damaged monuments are protected and safety measures are implemented.

Increased protection is given to damaged monuments, particularly those that are not included in the current program of work, to minimise any future deterioration of the heritage fabric.

Additional safety measures should be implemented to ensure the safety of both locals and visitors to the sites.

Evidence of implementation of protective measures including covering of severely damaged monuments (e.g. Vishwarupa Temple and portions of Hanuman Dhoka Palace) exposed to the weather.

 

1 October 2021

2.

Repairs and reconstructions are implemented according to the highest international quality standards.

Establish quality control measures to be implemented to ensure that the monuments are repaired and reconstructed in accordance with best practice and that the work is undertaken by appropriately experienced master artisans with specialist expertise in the use of traditional materials and traditional methods of construction.

Adopted Quality Control System including: criteria for prequalification of contractors, quality documentation being provided for tender and construction purposes, contract conditions including adherence to the Basic Guidelines for the Conservation and Reconstruction of Earthquake-Damaged Heritage (2072), and monitoring of work in progress.

1 October 2021

3.

Management documents and policies are revised and/or updated, taking physical and management changes to the property into account.

The Integrated Management Plan (IMP) and Integrated Management Framework (IMF) should be updated to reflect the changes to the property brought about by the earthquakes and any changes in management structures.

Revised and updated IMP and IMF

2 January 2022

4.

Potential impacts of development and/or infrastructure projects are identified ahead of time and mitigation measures developed, if necessary.

Coordinate with NRA and infrastructure providers regarding the construction of new infrastructure (e.g. sewer, drainage, water, street lighting, new roads or road upgrades) or infrastructure upgrades through the KVWHP.

Review proposals and provide feedback to the authorities, identifying heritage impacts on the KVWHP and its attributes including the subsurface archaeology, the monuments and other structures, paving and streetscape.

Negotiate the most acceptable route with the authorities prior to its implementation.

Develop protective and mitigation measures to be implemented during construction including archaeological monitoring, recording and salvage.

Plans for installation of new infrastructure or infrastructure upgrades

Heritage Impact Assessment to be prepared.

Mitigation Measures to be implemented during construction.

As soon as routes are identified and agreed with DoA.

5.

Projects that may have an impact on the property and its OUV are submitted and reviewed in line with the Operational Guidelines.

All major works projects must be reviewed and approved by the WHC and the Advisory Bodies, in line with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines.

This includes projects proposing changes to the monuments (e.g. Lal Baithak), as well as proposed new development within the monument zones (e.g. police station site at Hanuman Dhoka).

Documentation, including evidence for proposed interventions and Heritage Impact Assessments for all major works projects undertaken in the recovery.

When proposal is made

Approval must be granted prior to commencement.

6.

Master Plans are prepared for each monument zone, using the Historic Urban Landscape approach.

Using the HUL approach, prepare Master Plans for each of the monument zones and their buffer zones to guide development within them.

Master Plans for all PMZs, including map showing proposed/potential development sites, as well as proposed development controls and guidelines.

Include requirement for heritage impacts of proposed work to be assessed against all the mapped heritage attributes (tangible and intangible) and heritage values (OUV and local).

Mapping of monument zones and buffer zones to show each of the information layers identified in section 4.2.4.1

December 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 January 2022

7.

Conservation Management Plans are prepared for major monument complexes, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies.

Prepare conservation management plans (CMPs) for two of the major monument complexes – Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Palace Museum, Bhaktapur Durbar Palace (National Art Museum)

The CMPs should guide conservation, adaptation and change for these two monuments and should be prepared prior to any major change occurring.

Table of contents for review

1 October 2021

Draft CMPs for review

1 December 2021

Final CMPs

1 February 2022

8.

Prepare conservation management plans (CMPs) for other major monument complexes – Swayambu, Pashipatinath, Changunarayan.

The CMPs should guide conservation, adaptation and change for these three monuments and should be prepared prior to any major change occurring.

Draft CMPs for review

1 April 2022

Final CMPs

1 June 2022

9.

Policies for disaster risk management are in place at the property level and for each monument zone.

Develop a risk management framework for the World Heritage property.

In consultation with local site managers, communities and emergency responders, prepare a disaster risk management plan for each of the monument zones.

Risk Management Framework for the World Heritage Property

1 December 2021

Disaster Risk Management Plan for each Monument Zone

1 April 2022

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7B.33
Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121bis)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B.Add,
  2. Recalling Decisions 39 COM 7B.69, 40 COM 7B.41, 41 COM 7B.95, 42 COM 7B.12 and 43 COM 7B.70 adopted at its 39th (Bonn, 2015), 40th (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016), 41st (Krakow, 2017), 42nd (Manama, 2018) and 43rd (Baku, 2019) sessions respectively,
  3. Welcomes the commitment made by the Government of Nepal and by national and international organizations towards the recovery of the property, as well as the progress made in response to the major challenges arising from the 2015 earthquakes, including repair of monuments within the seven monument zones;
  4. Appreciates the State Party’s commitment to expediting the revision of the Integrated Management Framework (IMF), and updating the Recovery Master Plan (RMP), including revisions to the six-year plan and timetable, as per the requirements according to the context of sites and national legislative provisions, and also appreciates the process of formulation of the New Master Plan for Pashupati Protected Monument Zone and prepared HIA Procedures which are in the process of government approval;
  5. Also urges the State Party to expedite the establishment of the International Scientific Committee (ISC) to assist with the development of structures and resources to guide the recovery of the property and its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), and requests the State Party to submit the ISC’s Terms of Reference and membership to the World Heritage Centre;
  6. Also requests the State Party to implement fully what was already declared in the six-year plan and complete all its rehabilitation works within 2022 and to report to the World Heritage Committee;
  7. Noting the conclusions and recommendations of the 2019 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission, expresses concern at the mission’s findings regarding the adverse effect on the authenticity of the property and the focus on monuments at the expense of other attributes, with resulting ramifications for traditional urban housing and ancient settlements, and therefore further requests the State Party to fully implement the mission recommendations, in particular:
    1. The establishment of a Recovery Master Plan for each Protective Monument Zone of the property, and
    2. The immediate cessation of proposed changes to the Lal Baithak wing of the National Art Museum, Bhaktapur, pending the submission of further documentation and a thorough technical review by ICOMOS to consider the potential impacts of the proposed project on the OUV of the property;
  8. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to integrate the RMPs for each Protective Monument Zone of the property with the overall socio-economic revitalization programme for urban communities;
  9. Notes that the recommendations from the April 2019 ICOMOS Technical Review of the Patan Durbar Square Monument Zone sewer project are being implemented and requests furthermore that the State Party submit the resulting documentation to the World Heritage Centre;
  10. Also notes the State Party’s confirmation that the proposed New Master Plan for the Pashupati Protected Monument Zone has been withdrawn, and requests moreover that the State Party prepare Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA) for all proposed major new urban infrastructure projects within the Monument Zones and buffer zones, including the proposed ring roads expansion of Swayambunath, in accordance with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, and submit them to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies before any decision is made that would be difficult to reverse;
  11. Calls upon the international community to continue supporting the State Party’s recovery work through financial, technical or expert assistance, including support for local communities and their housing and social needs, and in particular to continue to support capacity building, which will facilitate:
    1. Workshops and research focused on technical issues such as structural assessment of traditional load-bearing structures, and materials dating and testing,
    2. Further development of a secure centralized and accessible digital database for management of all documents pertinent to the property,
    3. Values-based heritage assessment and conservation management planning for the property, its Monument Zones and monument complexes,
    4. Master Planning utilizing the approach of the 2011 UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) to manage urban development within the property and its buffer zones, and
    5. Disaster Risk Management Planning for each Monument Zone and for graded monuments;
  12. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session.
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7B.33

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B.Add,
  2. Recalling Decisions 39 COM 7B.69, 40 COM 7B.41, 41 COM 7B.95, 42 COM 7B.12 and 43 COM 7B.70 adopted at its 39th (Bonn, 2015), 40th (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016), 41st (Krakow, 2017), 42nd (Manama, 2018) and 43rd (Baku, 2019) sessions respectively,
  3. Welcomes the commitment made by the Government of Nepal and by national and international organizations towards the recovery of the property, as well as the progress made in response to the major challenges arising from the 2015 earthquake, including repair of monuments within the seven monument zones;
  4. Urges the State Party to expedite the revision of the Integrated Management Framework (IMF), the updating of the Recovery Master Plan (RMP), including revisions to the six-year plan and timetable, reiterates its requests that the State Party integrate the updated RMP within the overall socio-economic revitalization programme for urban communities, and requests that these revised plans, as well as the proposed single Master Plan for the Monument Zones, be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  5. Also urges the State Party to expedite the establishment of the International Scientific Committee (ISC) to assist with the development of structures and resources to guide the recovery of the property and its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), and also requests the State Party to submit the ISC’s Terms of Reference and membership to the World Heritage Centre;
  6. Noting the conclusions and recommendations of the 2019 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission, expresses serious concern at the mission’s findings regarding the adverse effect on the authenticity of the property, the continuing poor condition of some monuments, including the Hanuman Dhoka Durbar and Bhaktapur Durbar Palaces, the Changunarayan complex and Vishwarupa Temple (Pashupati), and the focus on monuments at the expense of other attributes, with resulting ramifications for traditional urban housing and ancient settlements, and therefore further requests the State Party to fully implement the mission recommendations, in particular:
    1. The establishment of a Recovery Master Plan for each Protective Monument Zone of the property, and
    2. The immediate cessation of proposed changes to the Lal Baithak wing of the National Art Museum, Bhaktapur, pending the submission of further documentation and a thorough technical review by ICOMOS to consider the potential impacts of the proposed project on the OUV of the property;
  7. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to integrate the RMPs for each Protective Monument Zone of the property with the overall socio-economic revitalization programme for urban communities;
  8. Notes that the recommendations from the April 2019 ICOMOS Technical Review of the Patan Durbar Square Monument Zone sewer project are being implemented and requests furthermore that the State Party submit the resulting documentation to the World Heritage Centre,
  9. Also notes the State Party’s confirmation that the proposed New Master Plan for the Pashupati Protected Monument Zone has been withdrawn, and requests moreover that the State Party prepare Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA) for all proposed major new urban infrastructure projects within the Monument Zones and buffer zones, including the proposed ring roads expansion of Swayambunath, in accordance with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, and submit them to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies before any decision is made that would be difficult to reverse;
  10. Calls upon the international community to continue supporting the State Party’s recovery work through financial, technical or expert assistance, including support for local communities and their housing and social needs, and in particular to continue to support capacity building, which will facilitate:
    1. Workshops and research focused on technical issues such as structural assessment of traditional load-bearing structures, and materials dating and testing,
    2. Further development of a secure centralized and accessible digital database for management of all documents pertinent to the property,
    3. Values-based heritage assessment and conservation management planning for the property, its Monument Zones and monument complexes,
    4. Master Planning utilizing the approach of the 2011 UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) to manage urban development within the property and its buffer zones, and
    5. Disaster Risk Management Planning for each Monument Zone and for graded monuments;
  11. Considers that the potential and ascertained threats to the OUV of the property are so considerable that the recovery process needs to be further improved, and that inscribing the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger will assist the recovery process to focus on projects that sustain the attributes that sustain the OUV, particularly the distinctive building structures and materials, in order to avoid problematic reconstruction, conservation and development activities that may damage the property’s authenticity;
  12. Decides therefore, in conformity with Paragraph 179 of the Operational Guidelines, to inscribe Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) on the List of World Heritage in Danger;
  13. Requests as well the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, to refine and finalize the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and the corrective measures identified during the 2017 and 2019 Reactive Monitoring missions, along with the timeframe for their implementation, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session;
  14. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022.
Report year: 2021
Nepal
Date of Inscription: 1979
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)(iv)(vi)
Danger List (dates): 2003-2007
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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