Take advantage of the search to browse through the World Heritage Centre information.

Island of Mozambique

Mozambique
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Financial resources
  • Housing
  • Human resources
  • Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other climate change impacts
  • Solid waste
  • Other Threats:

    Growing number of collapsed or seriously dilapidated buildings

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Management and Conservation Plan not yet finalized
  • Growing number of collapsed or seriously dilapidated buildings
  • Threats to authenticity through inappropriate repairs
  • Lack of development control
  • Lack of adequate sewage and water systems
  • Lack of adequate financial and human resources
  • Accelerated building deterioration due to rising risks (e.g. 2019 Cyclones)
  • Climate Change
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount provided to the property: For the rehabilitation of the Saint Sebastian Fortress: USD 1,108,078 by Japan Funds in Trust; USD 526,015 by UCCLA; USD 397,122 by Portugal/IPAD; USD 270,000 by Flanders Funds in Trust; USD 729,729 by the Netherlands Funds in Trust. For other conservation and management projects: USD 50,000 by World Heritage Cities Programme (Netherlands); USD 89,000 by IPAD; USD 23,175 by Africa 2009; USD 13,450 by the African World Heritage Fund (AWHF); USD 42,000 by One UN Fund in 2017-2018

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 7 (from 1994-2018)
Total amount approved : 233,140 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

2005, 2006, 2007, 2008: World Heritage Centre missions; February 2007: ICOMOS mission; February 2009: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; April 2010: ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; March 2018: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 1 December 2019, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/599/documents, which reports on the progress achieved with the implementation of the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018), as follows:

  • The Management and Conservation Plan of Island of Mozambique (2018-2024)(MCPIM), which incorporates disaster risk management and the new buffer zone delimitation including the remaining underwater archaeological heritage alongside marine ecosystems, has been finalized and is awaiting governmental approval;
  • A proposal to amend the Island of Mozambique Conservation Office (GACIM)’s statute to give the institution more authority regarding the development control within the property has been submitted to the national authorities for approval;
  • Efforts are being made to strengthen GACIM’s capacities through new staff recruitment and capacity building;
  • Building conservation and technical diagnostics have been undertaken. Work on two buildings of the Hospital complex has been completed, with two additional buildings currently under restoration. Work on the main block is yet to commence;
  • Two public institutions were relocated from the property to the mainland, which reportedly reduces the risk to their original buildings due to constant use;
  • Community programmes (such as “One Student One Family”) are being implemented to improve the inhabitants living conditions and their sense of belonging and identity, especially in Macúti. A “Workshop on the community participation in the management and monitoring processes at the Island of Mozambique World Heritage Site” was held in November 2019, funded through International Assistance;
  • An “Urban Structure Plan for the Island of Mozambique District” is being prepared, which aims to define strategies to sustainably manage traffic and mitigate negative impacts on cultural heritage, and to develop actions regarding the excessive demographic pressure, which impacts on infrastructure and public spaces;
  • The MCPIM provides for a Heritage Management Committee (CGIM) to ensure the site’s conservation, but it is not yet constituted;
  • The protective sea wall of the Island, which collapsed in 2017 supposedly due to climate change-related tidal activity, was rebuilt;
  • There are still storm water drainage and sanitation problems, especially in Macúti town;
  • A proposal to build a tourist complex on Goa Island, located in the buffer zone, was presented to GACIM, who submitted the project to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism;
  • The “Specific Rules for the Conservation of the Built Heritage of Macúti Town” has been developed and is awaiting government approval. It includes a framework, types of intervention, and rules, with three examples of standard-projects, to contribute for the preservation of original architecture and serve as guidance for interventions.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

The progress made by the State Party in addressing the challenges faced by the property is to be commended, in particular the revision of the Management and Conservation Plan of the Island of Mozambique (MCPIM), through financial support from the One UN Fund. It is now urgent for the State Party to submit it to the World Heritage Centre for review before official approval. The new buffer zone delimitation proposal should be submitted as a Minor Boundary Modification to the World Heritage Centre in accordance with Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines.

The efforts made to strengthen GACIM’s authority and technical capacities are to be similarly commended, in particular with regards to efforts to amend its statute to grant the institution increased authority regarding decision-making on interventions on the Island’s built heritage. The State Party should be encouraged to pursue these efforts, notably by approving the proposed amendment to the GACIM’s statute, appointing qualified staff and reinforcing the cooperation between GACIM and the Municipality on issues and activities related to management and conservation.

The conservation measures undertaken to preserve the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, as seen with the reconstruction of the hospital building should continue. The actions to protect the Island from storm surges, through the construction of a sea wall are laudable. A long-term strategy for sea defence infrastructure should be developed and its effect assessed through Visual and Heritage Impact Assessments.

Important restoration work remains to be done, in particular on buildings such as the Court of the Island, or the main block of the hospital. This process should be carried out on the basis of the conservation guidelines to steer renovation and restoration projects. Long-term vacancy of public buildings should be avoided and careful consideration to their new use is recommended, with preference to new public use.

The State Party has not yet submitted the requested inventory of Structures of the stone and lime town area of the property, which should identify their current use. Moreover, the “Urban Structure Plan for the Island of Mozambique District” should be finalized and submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies.

The “Specific Rules for the Conservation of the Built Heritage of Macúti town”, submitted along with the State Party report, is also to be welcomed. This document, for which ICOMOS provided a technical review sent to the State Party on 17 September 2020, needs to be updated accordingly following which it should be approved by the government and implemented. Efforts made to improve the conservation of Macúti, for example through programmes to empower the local communities, should be extended, with priority to development projects to improve the sanitation and living conditions in Macúti. It is recommended that the Committee encourages the State Party to mobilize funds to this effect including through International Assistance.

The organization of the “Workshop on the community participation in the management and monitoring processes at the Island of Mozambique World Heritage Site” is also welcomed.

Finally, it is worth recalling that, pursuant to Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, the State Party should inform the Committee, through the World Heritage Centre, of the state of progress of the “Fortim de São Lourenço”, “Complex and Hotel Desportivo” and “Tourist complex in Goa Island” projects.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7B.8
Island of Mozambique (Mozambique) (C 599)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7B.47, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Commends the State Party for the finalization of the Management and Conservation Plan of Island of Mozambique (2018-2024) (MCPIM), and urges the State Party to submit it to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies and, once agreement has been reached on its content, to officially approve this document;
  4. Also commends the State Party for the new buffer zone delimitation proposal, and requests it to submit it as a Minor Boundary Modification to the World Heritage Centre following the official procedure set in Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies and examination by the World Heritage Committee;
  5. Encourages the State Party to pursue its efforts to strengthen the Island of Mozambique Conservation Office (GACIM)’s authority and technical capacities, notably by approving the proposed amendment of GACIM’s statutes, by accelerating the process of recruitment of new official staff, and by reinforcing the cooperation between GACIM and the Municipality on issues and activities related to the management and conservation of the property;
  6. Notes with satisfaction the conservation measures undertaken by the State Party to preserve the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, notably the restoration of a number of buildings in the hospital complex, and also requests the State Party to:
    1. Finalize the restoration of the main block of the hospital,
    2. Find a sustainable solution to avoid long-term vacancy of public buildings in the property and maintain their public use,
    3. Undertake restoration work on important buildings, such as the Court of the Island,
    4. Enforce the use of the conservation guidelines to steer renovation and restoration projects,
    5. Submit the requested inventory of Structures of the stone and lime town area of the property, and include their current use in the inventory,
    6. Encourage property owners to address annual building maintenance, to avoid increasing deterioration due to Climate Change and rising Risks;
  7. Further commends the State Party on its actions in addressing threats from climate change induced storm surges, also noting the potential spatial and visual impacts of these structures, further requests the State Party to develop a long-term strategy for sea defence infrastructure and to assess this through Visual and Heritage Impact Assessments, and submit these to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Requests furthermore the State Party to finalize the “Urban Structure Plan for the Island of Mozambique District” and to submit it to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies before adopting it;
  9. Welcomes the elaboration of the “Specific Rules for the Conservation of the Built Heritage of the Macúti Town”, and requests moreover the State Party to update it following the recommendations provided by ICOMOS in its technical review and to officially approve and implement it;
  10. Also encourages the State Party to mobilize funds (through International Assistance for example) to address the living conditions in the Macúti town in a way that is appropriate regarding the OUV of the property, notably through development projects to improve the sanitation and living conditions;
  11. Also welcomes the holding of the “Workshop on the community participation in the management and monitoring processes at the Island of Mozambique World Heritage Site”, and further encourages the State Party to continue community participation and engagement activities;
  12. Recalls that, pursuant to Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, the State Party should inform the Committee through the World Heritage Centre of the status of the “Fortim de São Lourenço”, “Complex and Hotel Desportivo” and “Tourist complex in Goa Island” projects and ensure that no work continue on these proposed projects, until information has been submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  13. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session.
44 COM 8D
Clarifications of property boundaries and areas by States Parties

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/8D,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 8D, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Acknowledges the excellent work accomplished by States Parties in the clarification of the boundaries of their World Heritage properties and commends them for their efforts to improve the credibility of the World Heritage List;
  4. Recalls that the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies are not able to examine proposals for minor or significant modifications to boundaries of World Heritage properties whenever the delimitations of such properties as inscribed remain unclear;
  5. Takes note of the clarifications of property boundaries and areas provided by the States Parties as presented in the Annex of Document WHC/21/44.COM/8D:

    AFRICA

    • Mozambique, Island of Mozambique
    • Nigeria, Sukur Cultural Landscape

    ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

    • Australia, Purnululu National Park
    • Iran (Islamic Republic of), Bisotun
    • Japan, Shiretoko

    EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

    • France, Canal du Midi

    LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

    • Guatemala, Tikal National Park;

  6. Requests the World Heritage Centre to continue the identification and collection of geographic and cartographic information of World Heritage properties in nominations where the required information is not available or not adequate;
  7. Also requests the States Parties which have not yet answered the questions raised in the framework of the Retrospective Inventory and the Periodic Reporting, to provide all clarifications and documentation as soon as possible, and by 1 December 2021, for their subsequent examination, if the technical requirements are met, by the 45th session of the World Heritage Committee.
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7B.8

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7B.47, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Commends the State Party for the finalization of the Management and Conservation Plan of Island of Mozambique (2018-2024) (MCPIM), and urges the State Party to submit it to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies and, once agreement has been reached on its content, to officially approve this document;
  4. Also commends the State Party for the new buffer zone delimitation proposal, and requests it to submit it as a Minor Boundary Modification to the World Heritage Centre following the official procedure set in Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies and examination by the World Heritage Committee;
  5. Encourages the State Party to pursue its efforts to strengthen the Island of Mozambique Conservation Office (GACIM)’s authority and technical capacities, notably by approving the proposed amendment of GACIM’s statutes, by accelerating the process of recruitment of new official staff, and by reinforcing the cooperation between GACIM and the Municipality on issues and activities related to the management and conservation of the property;
  6. Notes with satisfaction the conservation measures undertaken by the State Party to preserve the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, notably the restoration of a number of buildings in the hospital complex, and also requests the State Party to:
    1. Finalize the restoration of the main block of the hospital,
    2. Find a sustainable solution to avoid long-term vacancy of public buildings in the property and maintain their public use,
    3. Undertake restoration work on important buildings, such as the Court of the Island,
    4. Enforce the use of the conservation guidelines to steer renovation and restoration projects,
    5. Submit the requested inventory of Structures of the stone and lime town area of the property, and include their current use in the inventory,
    6. Encourage property owners to address annual building maintenance, to avoid increasing deterioration due to Climate Change and rising Risks;
  7. Further commends the State Party on its actions in addressing threats from climate change induced storm surges, also noting the potential spatial and visual impacts of these structures, further requests the State Party to develop a long-term strategy for sea defence infrastructure and to assess this through Visual and Heritage Impact Assessments, and submit these to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Requests furthermore the State Party to finalize the “Urban Structure Plan for the Island of Mozambique District” and to submit it to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies before adopting it;
  9. Welcomes the elaboration of the “Specific Rules for the Conservation of the Built Heritage of the Macúti Town”, and requests moreover the State Party to update it following the recommendations provided by ICOMOS in its technical review and to officially approve and implement it;
  10. Also encourages the State Party to mobilize funds (through International Assistance for example) to address the living conditions in the Macúti town in a way that is appropriate regarding the OUV of the property, notably through development projects to improve the sanitation and living conditions;
  11. Also welcomes the holding of the “Workshop on the community participation in the management and monitoring processes at the Island of Mozambique World Heritage Site”, and further encourages the State Party to continue community participation and engagement activities;
  12. Recalls that, pursuant to Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, the State Party should inform the Committee through the World Heritage Centre of the status of the “Fortim de São Lourenço”, “Complex and Hotel Desportivo” and “Tourist complex in Goa Island” projects and ensure that no work continue on these proposed projects, until information has been submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  13. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session in 2023.
Report year: 2021
Mozambique
Date of Inscription: 1991
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iv)(vi)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2019) .pdf
Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


top