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Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)

Iraq
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Deliberate destruction of heritage
  • Flooding
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • War
  • Water infrastructure
  • Other Threats:

    Fragile mud brick structures

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Management activities
  • Managements systems/management plan
  • Water infrastructure (dam building project)
  • Partial flooding and seepage
  • Fragile mud brick structures
  • Absence of a comprehensive conservation and management plan
  • Destruction and damage due to the armed conflict
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Nearby construction of a dam entailing partial flooding and seepage
  • Armed conflict
Corrective Measures for the property

Not yet identified

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Not yet established
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount granted (for World Heritage properties of Iraq):

  • USD 6,000 from the Italian Funds-in-Trust
  • USD 1.5 million by the Government of Japan (for cultural heritage, including World Heritage)
  • USD 154,000 by the Government of Norway (for cultural heritage, including World Heritage)
  • EUR 300,000 by the Government of Italy (for cultural heritage, including World Heritage)
  • USD 35,000 by the Government of the Netherlands (for cultural heritage, including World Heritage)
  • USD 100,000 Heritage Emergency Fund - support for Iraqi World Heritage properties.
  • USD 35,782 from the Netherlands Funds-in-Trust (for Strengthening capacities in state of conservation reporting on properties inscribed on the list of World Heritage in Danger)
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 1 (from 2003-2003)
Total amount approved : 50,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

November 2002: UNESCO mission for the Makhool Dam project; June 2011: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 3 February 2020, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, an updated version of which was submitted on 28 January 2021. These reports, which are available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1130/documents/, provide the following information:

  • The property suffers from the impact of natural factors, especially its western side, which is located along the Tigris River. The retaining wall that had been built to mitigate the impact of flooding of the river has undergone severe erosion, which prompted the State Board of Antiquities and Heritage (SBAH) to address its conservation. The necessary works are being carried out through contracting a national company. The full report will be provided upon completion;
  • Other works that the SBAH has carried out at the property include the filling of the trench around the Ziggurat of Ashur with soil and infill of some internal tunnels, in order to mitigate the risks posed by weathering;
  • The State Party recalled the damage to the property prior to its liberation in 2017, including to the Ziggurat of Ashur, Tabira Gate, Farhan Pasha Palace and the headquarters of the German expedition. All such information will be included in a special damage assessment report for the property;
  • Conservation work was initiated at Tabira Gate and was carried out by a team from the American University in Sulaymaniyah, through the support of the International Alliance for the Protection of Heritage in Conflict Areas (ALIPH);
  • The imminent commencement of construction of Makhool dam poses a threat to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and surrounding archaeological sites and the State Party requests technical assistance in preserving the property and the archaeological sites in the dam basin;
  • The State Party reiterates its previous request that a mission be dispatched to assess damage to the property.

In January 2021, UNESCO was notified of the intention of the State Party to proceed with the construction of Makhool Dam that had previously been cancelled. UNESCO requested the provision of all relevant information for technical review by the Advisory Bodies in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines. On 28 March 2021, information on the construction of the dam was received indicating that the dam is the same as proposed in 2003. While information was provided regarding the archaeological sites that will be affected, including the property, no technical information has been provided about the construction of the dam itself.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

Although there is still a lack of detailed and comprehensive information about the state of conservation of the property, the State Party has referred to the fact that a damage assessment report will be provided. It is recommended that the Committee reiterate its request to the State Party to submit, for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, all reports prepared related to the damage assessment and interventions it has undertaken at the property. It is recommended that future interventions be addressed within the framework of an overall assessment of damage and risks and a comprehensive conservation plan prepared in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies.

The State Party has carried out urgent intervention measures, aiming to mitigate the impact of threats at the property, including potential flood and water damage. As previously recommended, any protection and emergency stabilization work should be undertaken only in cases where collapse or further damage is imminent, according to the principle of minimal intervention. In addition, any elements found at the property and resulting from conflict-related damage such as intentional destructions, should be retrieved and gathered in a safe location, and the boundaries of the property protected from illegal excavations and looting. The State Party’s efforts to address immediate risks at the property are appreciated.

It is regrettable that the plans to construct the Makhool dam have been re-activated. When the property was first inscribed on the World Heritage List, the large dam project was considered as a major threat justifying concurrent inscription of the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Therefore, the State Party was encouraged to relocate or cancel the project. A joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission to the property in 2011 reiterated concerns regarding the construction of the dam, and recommended that the State Party propose and implement preventive measures. In 2013, on the basis of the state of conservation report that had been submitted, the Committee welcomed the announcement by the State Party of the then cancellation of the project (Decision 37 COM 7A.24).

Considering the foreseen impact that the dam would have on the property and numerous other archaeological sites, it is recommended that Committee again request the cancellation or relocation of the project. It is further recommended that the Committee specifically reaffirms the potential danger to the OUV of the property arising from the proposed dam as it did in 2003, at the time of inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger in accordance with Paragraph 179(b) of the Operational Guidelines.

It is once again recommended that a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission take place once security and sanitary conditions permit, in order to assist in assessing the condition of the property, as a preparatory step for the development of a comprehensive conservation plan and formal identification of the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSCOR).



9. General Decision on the World Heritage properties of Iraq
Current conservation issues

The conflict in Iraq between 2014 and 2017 led to a massive humanitarian crisis and resulted in significant damage to Iraq’s cultural heritage through deliberate destruction, illegal excavation and looting, as well as collateral damage. Three of Iraq's World Heritage properties have suffered as a result of this conflict, namely Samarra Archaeological City, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) and Hatra. In addition, the archaeological sites of Nimrud and the Ancient City of Nineveh, which are on Iraq’s Tentative List, have also been greatly damaged through acts of deliberate destruction. In the Old City of Mosul, included in the Tentative List since August 2018, significant sites, monuments and buildings were systematically targeted, including historical and religious heritage sites such as al-Nouri Mosque and its iconic al-Hadba Minaret.

On 3 February 2020 and 28 January 2021, the State Party submitted state of conservation reports, available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/44com/documents/#state_of_conservation_reports. The reports provide an overview of the state of conservation of Samarra Archaeological City, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) and Hatra, and the damage inflicted as a result of the conflict, but no detailed assessment. The reports express the need for financial support to improve the state of conservation of World Heritage properties, and the wish of the State Party to work closely with the international community in this regard. The 2021 report mentions that the spread of COVID-19 has contributed to limiting conservation and management activities. The proposed construction of the Makhool Dam in Ashur (Qal’at Sherqat) has been re-activated and the State Party has requested support in preserving the property and the archaeological sites located in the dam’s basin.

The State Party reiterates its request for missions to be undertaken in order to conduct damage assessments and conservation works, and requests the support of the World Heritage Centre in the development of corrective measures for the eventual removal of the three properties from the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Activities undertaken by UNESCO

  • Since the 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee (Baku, 2019), UNESCO has pursued its actions towards the recovery of Iraq’s cultural heritage, notably in Mosul;
  • Within the framework of the Netherlands Funds-in-Trust project (USD 35,782), the World Heritage Centre has initiated the implementation of activities for strengthening capacities in state of conservation reporting on properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, and in the elaboration of the Desired state of conservation for removal of properties from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  • Following the launch of the Initiative “Revive the Spirit of Mosul” in February 2018, UNESCO has pursued its actions towards the rehabilitation and recovery of the Old City of Mosul:
      • Safeguarding cultural heritage in the Old City of Mosul has been carried out through two major projects, “Reviving the Spirit of Mosul by rebuilding its historic landmarks namely the Al-Nouri Mosque and its Al-Hadba Minaret, as well as the Al-Tahera Church and Al-Saa’a Church” funded by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (USD 50.4 million for the 2018-2023 period), as well as a major project funded by the European Union (EU) (USD 38 million in two phases from 2019-2022) for “Reviving Mosul and Basra Old Cities” which aims to rehabilitate the historic urban centres of these two major cities while creating jobs and developing skills of the young people in the rehabilitation and urban infrastructure,
      • At the Al-Nouri Mosque Complex and the Al-Hadba Minaret, the first phase of the restoration project consisted of documentation, assessment, securing the site, removing the surrounding debris, collecting historical fragments and stabilizing the remaining structures, was completed in the spring of 2020,
      • In April 2020, the third Joint Steering Committee of the UAE funded project decided that Al-Hadba Minaret shall be rebuilt in the same location and with the same features. The decision concerning the inclination of the Minaret, whether to be built leaning or straight, will be made after the local community is consulted. The Steering Committee of the project also approved that geotechnical investigations on the foundation of the Minaret should be undertaken before any reconstruction proposals are put forward,
      • With regards to Al-Nouri Mosque Complex, it was decided that the reconstruction shall be done through an international architectural design competition, and in November 2020, UNESCO launched an international architectural competition, endorsed by the International Union of Architects (UIA). The jury met from 6 to 10 April and the winning design was announced on 15 April 2021,
      • With regards to the rehabilitation of the two churches, the rubble removal as well as securing the site is completed for Al-Tahera Church as well as Al-Saa’a Church; damage assessment and technical documentation for restoration and rehabilitation of these two churches are ongoing and planned to be finalised by the end of the summer 2021,
      • As for the EU-funded project “Reviving Mosul and Basra Old Cities”, following engagement with all levels of concerned national and local government entities and relevant stakeholders, 43 historical houses were de-mined and selected for rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of these houses and the surrounding infrastructure started in December 2020 and is expected to be completed by October 2021,
      • Heritage-sensitive removal of rubble and clearance of explosive hazards at the sites has also been completed for another 75 houses. The rehabilitation of these additional 75 houses will start in early June 2021. As part of a Heritage Trail between the Al-Nouri Mosque site and the Tigris Riverbank, an additional 118 houses are assessed and earmarked for rubble removal and de-mining. These houses will be rehabilitated if new funding becomes available,
      • Technical documentation for the two palatial houses (Ziada and Suleyman and Qara Saray) has been prepared,
      • As for Al-Aghawat Mosque in Mosul, the temporary stabilisation is finalised and the preparation of technical documentation is ongoing,
      • These projects related to the reconstruction of Mosul’s built heritage have been, and will be creating immediate employment in Mosul as a relief measure in response to the unemployment caused by the COVID-19 outbreak. By the end of these two major rehabilitation projects in Mosul over 2,800 jobs will have been created, with 800 jobs created to date. By the end of these projects 1,630 professionals will be trained in craftsmanship and areas related to the rehabilitation of cultural heritage, both through Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), and on-the-job training;
      • Under the same project, damage assessment of seven heritage houses in Basra is ongoing, in addition to the preparation of technical documentation for the rehabilitation of public infrastructure and beautification of Al-Ashar Canal;
      • Also, with support from the Government of Flanders, in 2019, a publication was prepared on damage assessment of cultural and religious heritage affected by violent extremism during 2014 (Governorates of Ninawa, Kirkuk, Salah al-Din, Diyala and Anbar);
      • With regard to the support for the restoration and documentation of the thousands of manuscripts dating from the 14th to the 19th centuries, in 2018, UNESCO provided technical and financial assistance for the preservation of some of the most historically significant manuscripts and materials. The digitization and conservation equipment was subsequently delivered and installed at the Digital Centre of Eastern Manuscripts in Erbil;

Activities undertaken by the Advisory Bodies

  • UNESCO has recently signed an agreement with ICCROM to build capacity of local Iraqi professionals and craftspeople through the UAE and EU funded projects.
  • ICOMOS continues to support World Heritage in Iraq through the collection and dissemination of material and assisting the exchange of information

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The conflict situation in Iraq has directly affected its three properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger, and some of its Tentative List sites to varying degrees. The deliberate destruction of cultural heritage during the conflict period between 2014 and 2017 is of particular concern. Owing to the security situation in several parts of the country and the very limited resources, Iraq’s other World Heritage properties and Tentative List sites have been indirectly affected. In addition, the illegal excavation and looting of archeological sites have caused extensive loss and irreversible damage – although there have been several incidents of restitution of cultural property in recent years.

Since the liberation of substantial parts of the country in 2017, Iraq has been facing the challenges of recovery while addressing the unprecedented humanitarian crisis. This is particularly evident at the Old City of Mosul, where UNESCO is currently engaged within the framework of its flagship initiative “Revive the Spirit of Mosul”.

The lack of detailed damage assessments for the three World Heritage properties that are on the List of World Heritage in Danger remains a concern, despite the more recent reported documentation work for Hatra carried out by a team of experts in February 2020, through the support of the International Alliance for the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Conflict Areas (ALIPH), as well as the submission of an additional ‘Damage Assessment Report Status Study’, available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/277/documents/. This report includes general information on the intended process for recovery and brief descriptions and photographs of damage to individual components, as well as high-level recommendations, including reiteration of the request for a mission. Detailed damage assessments are necessary to evaluate the situation and to plan for stabilization and conservation works, including repair, rehabilitation and reconstruction of important monuments, before interventions can take place. It is recommended that the Committee remind the State Party of its previous request in Decision 43 COM 7A.21, that remedial and repair works should be guided by a comprehensive conservation plan prepared in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies. It is also necessary to evaluate potential risks other than those specifically related to conflict, such as those concerning natural deterioration and potential flooding, and, to plan for the properties’ longer-term recovery and management. In this regard the re-activation of the proposed construction of the Makhool Dam is a major concern, giving rise to an additional potential danger to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of Ashur (Qal’at Sherqat).

It is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to submit detailed documentation on all damage incurred at World Heritage properties, and to undertake protection and urgent stabilization work only in cases where collapse or further damage is imminent, according to the principle of minimal intervention. The required information includes systematic photographic surveys, drawings, graphics and quantitative data and identification of potential risks. Elements found at the property, and resulting from conflict-related damage, should be retrieved and gathered in a safe location. Boundaries of properties should be protected from illegal excavations and looting.

Moreover, it is recommended that the Committee remind the State Party to advise, through the World Heritage Centre, about any future plans for major restoration or new construction projects that may affect the OUV of World Heritage properties, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, before making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse.

The Committee should also reiterate its appeal to States Parties to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural property coming from Iraq and to contribute towards the safeguarding of its cultural heritage.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7A.6
Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Iraq) (C 1130)
Decision: 44 COM 7A.6

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decisions 43 COM 7A.18 and 43 COM 7A.21, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Taking into account Decision 44 COM 7A.9, on the World Heritage properties of Iraq,
  4. Notes the State Party’s efforts to address risks at the property and to keep the World Heritage Centre informed about the situation at the property, but expresses again its concern about its condition and the lack of comprehensive information on its state of conservation;
  5. Acknowledges the information provided by the State Party concerning the planned construction of Makhool Dam, and deeply regrets that the construction of the dam is again proposed and requests the State Party to relocate or cancel the project in view of its potential impact on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and other archaeological sites, and in the meantime, to submit the full technical information including a comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment to the World Heritage Centre for technical review;
  6. Reaffirms the potential danger to the OUV of the property arising from the proposed dam, which already justified in 2003 the inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger in accordance with Paragraph 179 (b) of the Operational Guidelines;
  7. Calls upon the State Party to suspend any work towards the dam construction, pending consideration of cancellation or relocation of the project and review of the technical information for the project;
  8. Reiterates its request to the State Party to submit all preliminary assessments of the property it has undertaken, and to carry out a detailed review of the damage incurred outlining the potential risks to the property, prior to taking any action on the ground, and to submit this assessment for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  9. Also requests the State Party to submit a detailed report on all interventions carried out as a matter of priority and also reiterates its previous request that interventions be addressed within the framework of the overall assessment of damage and risks and a comprehensive conservation plan prepared in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  10. Reminds the State Party of its obligation to submit to the World Heritage Centre, for evaluation by the Advisory Bodies, detailed information of any future works that may affect the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
  11. Reiterates the need for a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission, once conditions permit, to assist in assessing damage at the property, preparatory to the development of a comprehensive conservation plan, the identification of corrective measures, and the development of a Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  12. Reiterates its appeal to all States Parties to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural heritage coming from Iraq as per the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 2199 of February 2015, 2253 of December 2015 and 2347 of March 2017;
  13. Calls again on all States Parties to support emergency safeguarding measures, including through the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund;
  14. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session;
  15. Decides to retain Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Iraq) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
44 COM 7A.9
General Decision on the World Heritage properties of Iraq
Decision: 44 COM 7A.9

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7A.21, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Takes note of the reports provided by the State Party regarding the state of conservation of the properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger, and continues to express its concern about the lack of comprehensive and detailed assessment of the properties affected by the conflict and about the limited resources available for the safeguarding of affected cultural heritage;
  4. Expresses its appreciation to the Director-General of UNESCO for the progress made towards safeguarding cultural heritage in the Old City of Mosul, and for the expertise and resources mobilized so far within UNESCO’s “Revive the Spirit of Mosul” flagship initiative, and also expresses its appreciation to the donors for their generous contributions towards this end;
  5. Requests the State Party to submit updated documentation of damage incurred at World Heritage properties, including systematic photographic surveys, drawings, graphics, quantitative data and identification of potential risks, to safeguard damaged properties according to the principle of minimal intervention, and to refrain from undertaking conservation and restoration work until comprehensive conservation plans have been developed, in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  6. Reminds the State Party about the need to submit to the World Heritage Centre, for examination by the Advisory Bodies, information on any future plans for major restoration or new construction projects that may affect the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of World Heritage properties, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, before making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse;
  7. Reiterates its appeal to all States Parties to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural heritage coming from Iraq as per the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 2199 of February 2015, 2253 of December 2015 and 2347 of March 2017, and encourages the State Party to ratify the Second Protocol (1999) to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict;
  8. Calls again on all States Parties to provide technical and financial support to safeguarding efforts for Iraq’s World Heritage and other cultural heritage sites, including through the “Revive the Spirit of Mosul” initiative, in order to implement short-, medium- and long-term measures;
  9. Also requests the World Heritage Centre to present at its 45th session in 2022 a report on the activities related to cultural heritage undertaken within the framework of the “Revive the Spirit of Mosul” initiative;
  10. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the properties and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session.
44 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/21/44.COM/7A, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2.Add),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 44 COM 7A.28)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 44 COM 7A.29)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 44 COM 7A.32)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 44 COM 7A.35)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.39)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.40)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.41)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.42)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.43)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.45)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 44 COM 7A.5)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.55)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.52)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 44 COM 7A.6)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.7)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 44 COM 7A.8)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 44 COM 7A.10)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 44 COM 7A.47)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 44 COM 7A.11)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 44 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 44 COM 7A.13)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 44 COM 7A.14)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 44 COM 7A.15)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 44 COM 7A.48)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 44 COM 7A.1)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 44 COM 7A.2)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 44 COM 7A.3)
  • Mexico, Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California (Decision 44 COM 7B.56)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 44 COM 7A.30)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 44 COM 7A.49)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 44 COM 7A.17)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 44 COM 7A.16)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 44 COM 7A.36)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 44 COM 7A.37)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.50)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 44 COM 7A.33)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 44 COM 7A.53)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 44 COM 7A.18)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 44 COM 7A.19)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 44 COM 7A.20)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 44 COM 7A.21)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 44 COM 7A.22)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 44 COM 7A.23)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 44 COM 7A.4)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.51)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.54)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 44 COM 7A.31)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 44 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 44 COM 7A.25)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 44 COM 7A.26)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 44 COM 7A.27).
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7A.6

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decisions 43 COM 7A.18 and 43 COM 7A.21, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Taking into account Decision 44 COM 7A.9, on the World Heritage properties of Iraq,
  4. Notes the State Party’s efforts to address risks at the property and to keep the World Heritage Centre informed about the situation at the property, but expresses again its concern about its condition and the lack of comprehensive information on its state of conservation;
  5. Acknowledges the information provided by the State Party concerning the planned construction of Makhool Dam, and deeply regrets that the construction of the dam is again proposed and requests the State Party to relocate or cancel the project in view of its potential impact on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and other archaeological sites, and in the meantime, to submit the full technical information including a comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment to the World Heritage Centre for technical review;
  6. Reaffirms the potential danger to the OUV of the property arising from the proposed dam, which already justified in 2003 the inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger in accordance with Paragraph 179 (b) of the Operational Guidelines;
  7. Calls upon the State Party to suspend any work towards the dam construction, pending consideration of cancellation or relocation of the project and review of the technical information for the project;
  8. Reiterates its request to the State Party to submit all preliminary assessments of the property it has undertaken, and to carry out a detailed review of the damage incurred outlining the potential risks to the property, prior to taking any action on the ground, and to submit this assessment for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  9. Also requests the State Party to submit a detailed report on all interventions carried out as a matter of priority and also reiterates its previous request that interventions be addressed within the framework of the overall assessment of damage and risks and a comprehensive conservation plan prepared in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  10. Reminds the State Party of its obligation to submit to the World Heritage Centre, for evaluation by the Advisory Bodies, detailed information of any future works that may affect the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
  11. Reiterates the need for a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission, once conditions permit, to assist in assessing damage at the property, preparatory to the development of a comprehensive conservation plan, the identification of corrective measures, and the development of a Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  12. Reiterates its appeal to all States Parties to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural heritage coming from Iraq as per the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 2199 of February 2015, 2253 of December 2015 and 2347 of March 2017;
  13. Calls again on all States Parties to support emergency safeguarding measures, including through the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund;
  14. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022;
  15. Decides to retain Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Iraq) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2021
Iraq
Date of Inscription: 2003
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 2003-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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