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Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park

Central African Republic
Factors affecting the property in 2018*
  • Civil unrest
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals
  • Mining
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Insecurity
  • Poaching
  • Mining
  • Transhumance and illegal grazing
  • Illegal fishing
  • Illegal occupation of the property
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Illegal grazing
  • Uncontrolled poaching by heavily armed groups subsequent loss of up to 80% of the Park’s wildlife and the deteriorating security situation
  • Halt to tourism
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective Measures for the property
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Not yet identified

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2018
Requests approved: 4 (from 2001-2012)
Total amount approved : 225,488 USD
Missions to the property until 2018**

May 2001 and April 2009: Joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN Reactive Monitoring missions

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018

On 31 January 2018, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, available at http://whc.org/en/list/475/documents/, providing the following information:

  • The Wildlife Ecosystem Project of North-eastern part of the Central African Republic (CAR) (ECOFAUNE+), funded by the BEKOU European funds and the Central Africa Biodiversity Conservation Programme – Protecting Central Africa’s Elephants (PCBAC-SEAC), funded by the African Development Bank continues. Their objectives are to improve the governance and sustainable management of the natural resources of CAR and to preserve the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and its periphery. Several activities, such as: the rehabilitation of infrastructures, the acquisition of equipment, the training of personnel and field activities are implemented in this framework;
  • A management agreement (Public-Private Partnership) between the CAR government and the international conservation NGO Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) is currently being negotiated. An administrative, technical and operational system will be implemented by the WCS that could benefit, among others, from a grant of 7 million Euros from the European Development Fund (11th EDF). The WCS would be responsible, among others, for the management, surveillance and ecological monitoring of the property. For 2018, the priority is to train and deploy guards in the property and its surroundings and provide them with equipment to ensure its surveillance and be able to act rapidly in some areas of the property. The Ministry of Defence hopes to formalize a cooperative framework with the WCS for the successful implementation of these operations;
  • An aerial census was carried out in March and April 2017, highlighting the catastrophic decline of wildlife. The elephant, the population of which was estimated at approximately 5,000 individuals at the time of inscription, appears to have totally disappeared from the property. All populations of large species of mammal appear once again greatly declined in comparison to the data collected in 2005 and 2010. The Derby eland and the buffalo have been observed in some limited areas, but are totally absent in the vast plains where, historically, they were abundant. The presence of a small population of the Kordofan giraffe, sub-species in danger of extinction, was confirmed. Otherwise, different illegal activities have been observed, notably the presence of cattle and transhumance, poachers’ camps, moto trails and artisanal mining quarries;
  • This census enabled the gathering of information, which will enable to: establish zoning and determine the priority conservation zones as well as measures to combat threats. The priorities are: reduce transhumance and pastoralism , open roads and trails to access the property, relocate outside the Park the illegal habitations identified in the extreme north, and close down the illegal diamond mines located on the periphery of the property;
  • A strategy for threat management is being prepared in the framework of the Transborder Tripartite Anti-Poaching Agreement signed between the CAR, Cameroon and Chad. It will enable harmonization at the regional level of the measures to be undertaken to contain poaching and transhumance and reestablish security in the area. The CAR envisages the creation of a transboundary complex of protected areas, that would include the north-eastern sites of the country and Chad’s Zakouma National Park.

Further, the World Heritage Centre was informed, last April, of the rehabilitation project for the National Road 8 that crosses the Manovo-Gounda Saint-Floris Park. The Centre wrote to the State Party on 9 April 2018 to request the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of this project. The World Bank, one of the donors with the French Development Agency (AFD), transmitted to UNESCO on 19 April, the documents relating to the project, including the “Environmental and Social Safeguard Action Plan” and the “Terms of Reference for the Environmental and Social Impact Studies”.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2018

The results of the census again confirm the critical situation of this property: the decimation of large wildlife continues endlessly and has resulted in the disappearance of the elephant in the property. The pressure of poaching, notably by national and foreign armed groups, remains strong, to which is added the presence of large transhumant groups and their cattle in search of pasturage as well as artisanal mining exploitation. The progressive degradation of wildlife has compromised since several years the OUV of the property.

The mobilization by the State Party, through the different ECOFAUNE+ and PCBAC-SEAC projects, to improve the state of conservation of the property is warmly welcomed. The efforts of the CAR and its partners concentrate on the major threats, notably transborder transhumance; artisanal mining exploitation and insecurity. These threats remain worrying, taking into account the insecurity context that prevails in the region and which can limit the extent of interventions in the field of conservation. The signature of a Transborder Tripartite Anti-Poaching Agreement signed between the CAR, Cameroon and Chad, and the establishment of a strategy for threat management are commendable achievements. It is therefore recommended that the Committee notes with concern the serious threats weighing on the OUV of the property and congratulates the three States Parties of the CAR, Cameroon and Chad for the establishment of a transboundary anti-poaching strategy. It is also recommended that the Committee request the State Party, in concertation with the neighboring States, to undertake all necessary measures to combat transboundary transhumance and poaching and to obtain the technical and financial means to achieve this.

The negotiations for the establishment of a partnership between CAR and the WCS for the management of the property are also favorably welcomed. It is recommended that the Committee encourage the State Party to continue its cooperation with WCS through the implementation of management and surveillance activities to enable the ecological restoration process of the property to begin, and that it launches an appeal to donors to support this initiative and avoid the probable and imminent loss of the OUV of the property.

The rehabilitation project of National Road 8 that crosses the Park also raises concern, given that this road risks facilitating access to the property and reinforces illicit exploitation of its natural resources. The documents received concerning the ESIA have been transmitted to the IUCN for evaluation. It is noted with utmost concern that neither the Environmental and Social Safeguard Action Plan, nor the Terms of Reference for the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) make any reference to Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park and its status as a World Heritage property. The evaluation of the impacts of the project on the OUV of the property, already greatly degraded, must obligatorily be part of the ESIE. In May 2018, the State Party invited a joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN mission requested by the Committee in its Decision 38 COM 7A.34. For security reasons, the mission did not take place and was rescheduled for autumn 2018, security conditions permitting. It is recommended that the joint mission evaluates the state of conservation of the property and determines whether there remain perspectives for regeneration of the characteristics of the property justifying its OUV. Finally, it is recommended that the Committee maintain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger and continue to apply the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2018
42 COM 7A.45
Manovo Gounda St. Floris National Park (Central African Republic) (N 475)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7A.4, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Notes with utmost concern the results of the census that reveal that the decimation of large wildlife continues endlessly and has already resulted in the disappearance of the elephant and that the progressive degradation of wildlife has, for several years, compromised the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Expresses its concern as regards the persistent threats from poaching by armed groups, transboundary transhumance, artisanal mining exploitation and insecurity and congratulates the States Parties of the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Chad for the signature of the transboundary Tripartite Anti-Poaching Agreement and the development of a regional strategy to combat transhumance and poaching and requests these States Parties to secure the technical and financial means to urgently implement this strategy;
  5. Warmly welcomes the continued efforts of the State Party, with support from the ECOFAUNE+ (Wildlife Ecosystem of north-eastern CAR) and PCBAC-SEAC (Central Africa Biodiversity Conservation Programme – Protecting Central Africa’s Elephants) projects and technical partners, including the Wildlife Conservation Society, to improve the management and protection of the property and its surroundings and launches an appeal to donors to support the ecological restoration process of the property, to avoid the probable and imminent loss of its OUV;
  6. Regrets that the State Party did not inform the World Heritage Centre in advance of the rehabilitation of the National Road 8, recalls that the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the project must take into account the “IUCN Advisory Note on World Heritage: Environmental Evaluation” to assess eventual impacts on the OUV of the property and also recalls the importance of avoiding acceptance of any new project that could aggravate the existing threats and could compromise the progress achieved in the management of the project;
  7. Takes note of the invitation of the State Party for a joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN reactive monitoring mission, for autumn 2018, security situation permitting, to evaluate the state of conservation of the property and determine whether there remain perspectives for the regeneration of the characteristics of the property justifying its OUV;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  9. Decides to continue to apply the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism to this property;
  10. Also decides to retain Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Central African Republic) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
42 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/18/42.COM/7A, WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add and WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 42 COM 7A.1)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 42 COM 7A.2)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 42 COM 7A.5)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 42 COM 7A.8)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.45)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 42 COM 7A.9)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.46)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.47)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.48)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.49)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.50)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.51)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 42 COM 7A.17)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.44)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 42 COM 7A.40)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 42 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 42 COM 7A.19)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 42 COM 7A.20)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 42 COM 7A.21)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 42 COM 7A.22)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 42 COM 7A.23)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 42 COM 7A.24)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 42 COM 7A.25)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 42 COM 7A.26)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 42 COM 7A.53)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 42 COM 7A.13)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 42 COM 7A.14)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 42 COM 7A.15)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 42 COM 7A.3)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 42 COM 7A.54)
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 42 COM 7A.27)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 42 COM 7A.29)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 42 COM 7A.28)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 42 COM 7A.10)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 42 COM 7A.11)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.55)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 42 COM 7A.6)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 42 COM 7A.41)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 42 COM 7A.30)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 42 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 42 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 42 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 42 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 42 COM 7A.35)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 42 COM 7A.16)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 42 COM 7A.7)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.56)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.42)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 42 COM 7A.4)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 42 COM 7A.12)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 42 COM 7A.37)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 42 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 42 COM 7A.39)
Draft Decision: 42 COM 7A.45

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7A.4, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Notes with utmost concern the results of the census that reveal that the decimation of large wildlife continues endlessly and has already resulted in the disappearance of the elephant and that the progressive degradation of wildlife has, for several years, compromised the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Expresses its concern as regards the persistent threats from poaching by armed groups, transboundary transhumance, artisanal mining exploitation and insecurity and congratulates the States Parties of the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Chad for the signature of the transboundary Tripartite Anti-Poaching Agreement and the development of a regional strategy to combat transhumance and poaching and requests these States Parties to secure the technical and financial means to urgently implement this strategy;
  5. Warmly welcomes the continued efforts of the State Party, with support from the ECOFAUNE+ (Wildlife Ecosystem of north-eastern CAR) and PCBAC-SEAC (Central Africa Biodiversity Conservation Programme – Protecting Central Africa’s Elephants) projects and technical partners, including the Wildlife Conservation Society, to improve the management and protection of the property and its surroundings and launches an appeal to donors to support the ecological restoration process of the property, to avoid the probable and imminent loss of its OUV;
  6. Regrets that the State Party did not inform the World Heritage Centre in advance of the rehabilitation of the National Road 8, recalls that the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the project must take into account the “IUCN Advisory Note on World Heritage: Environmental Evaluation” to assess eventual impacts on the OUV of the property and also recalls the importance of avoiding acceptance of any new project that could aggravate the existing threats and could compromise the progress achieved in the management of the project;
  7. Takes note of the invitation of the State Party for a joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN reactive monitoring mission, for autumn 2018, security situation permitting, to evaluate the state of conservation of the property and determine whether there remain perspectives for the regeneration of the characteristics of the property justifying  its OUV;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  9. Decides to continue to apply the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism to this property;
  10. Also decides to retain Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Central African Republic) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2018
Central African Republic
Date of Inscription: 1988
Category: Natural
Criteria: (ix)(x)
Danger List (dates): 1997-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2018) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 42COM (2018)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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