Take advantage of the search to browse through the World Heritage Centre information.

Timbuktu

Mali
Factors affecting the property in 2017*
  • Deliberate destruction of heritage
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • War
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Occupation of the property by armed groups
  • Lack of management structure at the site
  • Armed conflict
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Occupation of the property by armed groups;
  • Absence of management;
  • Destruction of 14 mausoleums and degradation of the three mosques in the serial property.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

In progress 

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6622 

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Not yet identified

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2017

Total amount granted: USD 100,000 from the Italian Funds-in-Trust; USD 55,000 from the UNESCO Emergency Fund; USD 2,100,000 from the Action plan Fund for the rehabilitation of cultural heritage and the safeguarding of ancient manuscripts in Mali

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2017
Requests approved: 7 (from 1981-2012)
Total amount approved : 188,315 USD
Missions to the property until 2017**

2002, 2004, 2005, 2006: World Heritage Centre missions; 2008, 2009 and 2010: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring missions; May, October and December 2012: UNESCO emergency missions to Mali; June 2013: UNESCO assessment mission to Timbuktu

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2017

On 25 January 2017, in response to Decision 40 COM 7A.6, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/119/documents/, and supplemented by a more detailed evaluation report submitted on 3 May 2017, available at the same Web address. These reports provide the following information:

  • Of the 12 corrective measures adopted by the Committee (Decision 40 COM 7A.6), seven have been fully carried out and/or are being implemented:
    • The two mosques of Sankoré and Sidi Yahia were rehabilitated with the participation of local communities;
    • The plaster work of the Djingareyber mosque was also carried out with the participation of local communities;
    • A mausoleum maintenance guide has been developed;
    • The security situation around the mausoleums and mosques has improved thanks to the lighting of the premises through the installation of solar panels and because of the increase of the United-Nations police patrols in the city;
    • The operational capacities of the Cultural Mission of Timbuktu were strengthened following on-the-job training, and its staff was expanded with the recruitment of two persons;
    • Funding was mobilized by UNESCO from the European Union (500,000 euros) and by the State Party from India (USD 500,000) to strengthen the rehabilitation and restoration of the cultural heritage of Timbuktu. In this context, the fences of the mausoleum cemeteries will be rehabilitated to consolidate their security. The Conservation and Management Plan for the property, as well as the buffer zone boundaries, will also be revised;
    • The Management Committee for the property is being revitalized with all stakeholders;
  • The recent corrugated sheet construction of a modern bakery in the heart of the market interferes with the architectural homogeneity of the site and generates noise and environmental nuisance;
  • Instability of the security situation: despite the increase in military presence, this security situation is still not under control.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2017

It is important to highlight the progress made by the State Party in an unstable security context in the implementation of more than half of the corrective measures, in order to ensure the best conditions for the integrity and authenticity of the property. The rehabilitation of the mosques of Sankoré and Sidi Yahia and of the plaster work of the Djingareyber mosque have made it possible to consolidate the architectural structures of these more-than-five-centuries-old historic monuments and to ensure their physical conservation. This work, which brought together the local communities, contributes to the restoration of their dignity, social cohesion and national reconciliation.

The strengthening of the operational capacities of the Cultural Mission of Timbuktu, as well as the mobilization of additional funding from the European Union and India are also welcomed. This positive trend is favourable to the implementation of all the corrective measures. Accordingly, it is recommended that the Committee commends the State Party for the progress achieved and encourages the State Party to continue its progress.

Nevertheless, the security situation still remains unstable, despite the increase of the military presence on the ground. This situation made it impossible to organize the UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission requested by Decision 40 COM 7A.6. In addition, the State Party was unable to finalize the proposal for the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) as requested in that decision.

Moreover, the recent corrugated sheet construction of a modern bakery in the heart of the market is a cause for concern, given the contrast it creates to the architectural homogeneity and the noise and environmental nuisance it causes. In view of this situation, it is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to update and implement the urban regulations in the inscribed perimeter, ancient fabric and buffer zones as soon as possible. It is also recommended that the Committee urge the State Party to accelerate the finalization of the DSOCR with the support of its partners.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2017
41 COM 7A.29
Timbuktu (Mali) (C 119rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 40 COM 7A.6, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016),
  3. Commends the State Party for the progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures adopted at its 40th session in a difficult security context in northern Mali and encourages it to continue with the support of its partners;
  4. Expresses its concern at the fragility of the security situation in Timbuktu which prevented the joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission from being carried out in order to assess the general state of conservation of the property;
  5. Requests the State Party to update and implement the urban regulations within the inscribed perimeter, the ancient fabric and the buffer zones of the property, as soon as possible;
  6. Calls upon the international community to continue to provide support to the State Party, in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, in all possible ways, for the conservation and protection of the property;
  7. Reiterates its request to the State Party to invite, when the situation in the northern region of Mali is stabilized, a joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission to assess the overall state of conservation of the property and progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures;
  8. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to finalize, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM, the proposal for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and a precise timetable for implementation, and to submit them to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2018 for adoption by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
  9. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2018, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
  10. Decides to pursue the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
  11. Also decides to retain Timbuktu (Mali) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
41 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/17/41.COM/7A, WHC/17/41.COM/7A.Add and WHC/17/41.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
    • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 41 COM 7A.54)
    • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 41 COM 7A.55)
    • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 41 COM 7A.2)
    • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 41 COM 7A.23)
    • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.4)
    • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 41 COM 7A.24)
    • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.6)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.7)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.8)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.9)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.10)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.11)
    • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 41 COM 7A.32)
    • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.3)
    • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 41 COM 7A.18)
    • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 41 COM 7A.33)
    • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 41 COM 7A.34)
    • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 41 COM 7A.35)
    • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 41 COM 7A.36)
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 41 COM 7A.37)
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 41 COM 7A.38)
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 41 COM 7A.39)
    • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 41 COM 7A.40)
    • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 41 COM 7A.41)
    • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 41 COM 7A.14)
    • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 41 COM 7A.28)
    • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 41 COM 7A.29)
    • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 41 COM 7A.30)
    • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 41 COM 7A.56)
    • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 41 COM 7A.15)
    • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 41 COM 7A.42)
    • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 41 COM 7A.43)
    • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 41 COM 7A.25)
    • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 41 COM 7A.26)
    • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.16)
    • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 41 COM 7A.21)
    • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 41 COM 7A.19)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 41 COM 7A.44)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 41 COM 7A.45)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 41 COM 7A.46)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 41 COM 7A.47)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 41 COM 7A.48)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 41 COM 7A.49)
    • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 41 COM 7A.31)
    • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 41 COM 7A.22)
    • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.17)
    • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.1)
    • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 41 COM 7A.57)
    • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 41 COM 7A.27)
    • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 41 COM 7A.51)
    • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 41 COM 7A.52)
    • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 41 COM 7A.53)
      Draft Decision: 41 COM 7A.29

      The World Heritage Committee,

      1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A,
      2. Recalling Decision 40 COM 7A.6, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016),
      3. Commends the State Party for the progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures adopted at its 40th session in a difficult security context in northern Mali and encourages it to continue with the support of its partners;
      4. Expresses its concern at the fragility of the security situation in Timbuktu which prevented the joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission from being carried out in order to assess the general state of conservation of the property;
      5. Requests the State Party to update and implement the urban regulations within the inscribed perimeter, the ancient fabric and the buffer zones of the property, as soon as possible;
      6. Calls upon the international community to continue to provide support to the State Party, in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, in all possible ways, for the conservation and protection of the property;
      7. Reiterates its request to the State Party to invite, when the situation in the northern region of Mali is stabilized, a joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission to assess the overall state of conservation of the property and progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures;
      8. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to finalize, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM, the proposal for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and a precise timetable for implementation, and to submit them to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2018 for adoption by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
      9. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2018, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
      10. Decides to pursue the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
      11. Also decides to retain Timbuktu (Mali) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
      Report year: 2017
      Mali
      Date of Inscription: 1988
      Category: Cultural
      Criteria: (ii)(iv)(v)
      Danger List (dates): 1990-2005, 2012-present
      Documents examined by the Committee
      SOC Report by the State Party
      Report (2017) .pdf
      arrow_circle_right 41COM (2017)
      Exports

      * : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
      Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

      ** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


      top