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Angkor

Cambodia
Factors affecting the property in 1995*
  • Human resources
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Urgent problems of conservation

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Inadequate protective legislation;
  • Inadequately staffed national protection agency;
  • No permanent boundaries established and defined buffer zones;
  • Need for monitoring and coordination of the international conservation effort
International Assistance: requests for the property until 1995
Requests approved: 3 (from 1992-1994)
Total amount approved : 85,000 USD
Missions to the property until 1995**
Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 1995

Within the framework of assistance provided by the UNESCO Secretariat to the Cambodian authorities for the implementation of obligations following the inscription of Angkor on the List of World Heritage in Danger, (sixteenth session of the World Heritage Committee, Santa Fe, 14 December 1992), a legal expert was sent by UNESCO in March 1995, to finalize for adoption and application, the legislation with regard to the protection of cultural heritage.

As far as the establishment of a national organism for protection and the management of the site is concerned, UNESCO notes with satisfaction that the Cambodian authorities have issued, on 19 February 1995, a decree announcing the creation of the Authority for the Protection of the Site and the Management of the Region of Angkor (APSARA).

Furthermore, the International Coordination Committee, created in October 1993 by the Intergovernental Tokyo Conference for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor and for which UNESCO provides the permanent Secretariat, held in Phnom Penh, under the co-Chairmanship of France and Japan, a session of the Technical Committee on 31 March 1995. This enabled the Committee to ensure, in cooperation with the Cambodian authorities, the coordination and monitoring of international actions undertaken to conserve the site, restore its monuments and protect its environment.

Action Required

The Bureau confirms the Declaration adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its eighteenth session and commends the Cambodian authorities on the progress made in the implementation of the requests formulated by the Committee at the time of inscription of Angkor on the World Heritage List. The Bureau requests the Secretariat to provide a detailed report to the World Heritage Committee at its forthcoming session.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 1995

The UNESCO Secretariat is assisting the Royal Government of Cambodia in carrying out its obligations following the inscription of the site of Angkor on the List of World Heritage in Danger during the sixteenth session of the World Heritage Committee in Santa Fe, on 14 December 1992. Remedial action has paved the way for the creation of permanent boundaries and significant buffer zones, the establishment of an Authority for the Protection of the site and the development of the region of Angkor (APSARA) thanks to the Royal Kret (decree-law) promulgated by the Cambodian authorities on 19 February 1995, as well as the monitoring and coordination of international efforts in the field of conservation. In this respect, the third and fourth meetings of the Technical Committee created by the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguard and the Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (CIC), co-chaired by France and Japan, and for which UNESCO provides the secretariat, were held on 31 March in Phnom Penh, and 7 October 1995 in Siem Reap-Angkor.

With regard to the adoption of legislation for the protection of cultural property, a UNESCO consultant visited Cambodia, in March 1995, to finalize the draft text of the cultural property protection law with a view to its adoption and application whilst ensuring its harmonization with existing legal texts.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 1995

The Bureau may wish to recommend the Committee to request the Cambodian Government for an early adoption of the cultural property protection law.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 1995
19 BUR VI.21
Angkor (Cambodia)

The Secretariat reported that within the framework of assistance provided by the UNESCO Secretariat to the Cambodian authorities for the implementation of obligations following the inscription of Angkor on the List of World Heritage in Danger, in 1992, a legal expert was sent by UNESCO in March 1995, to finalize for adoption and application, the legislation with regard to the protection of cultural heritage.

As far as the establishment of a national organism for protection and the management of the site is concerned, the Cambodian authorities issued, on 19 February 1995, a decree announcing the creation of the Authority for the Protection of the Site and the Management of the Region of Angkor (APSARA).

Furthermore, the International Coordination Committee (ICC), under the co-Chairmanship of France and Japan, created in October 1993 by the Intergovermental Tokyo Conference for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor and for which UNESCO provides the permanent Secretariat, held in Phnom Penh, a session of its Technical Committee on 31 March 1995. This enabled the ICC to ensure, in cooperation with the Cambodian authorities, the coordination and monitoring of international actions undertaken to conserve the site, restore its monuments and protect its environment.

The Bureau recalled the Declaration adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its eighteenth session and commended the Cambodian authorities on the progress made in the implementation of the requests formulated by the Committee at the time of inscription of Angkor on the World Heritage List. The Bureau recommended that the Secretariat provide a detailed report to the World Heritage Committee at its forthcoming session.

19 COM VII.C.1.26
SOC: Angkor (Cambodia)

VII.26 Angkor (Cambodia)

The Secretariat recalled that at the time of inscription of Angkor on the List of World Heritage and on the List in Danger at the sixteenth session of the World Heritage Committee in Santa Fe, on 14 December 1992, the Committee set forth five obligations it requested the Cambodian authorities to fulfill within a period of three years. This period coming to its term at the end of December this year, H. E. Mr Vann Molyvann, Minister of State of the Royal Government of Cambodia, took the floor at the invitation of the Chairperson to inform the Committee on the progress made in the fulfillment of these commitments since his last detailed report to the eighteenth session of the Committee last year.

Noting that three of the Committee's requests, i.e. the establishment of permanent boundaries; establishment of meaningful buffer zones; and establishment of monitoring and the coordination of international conservation effort, have been accomplished in 1994, the Minister reported that in 1995, the Authority for the Protection of the site and the Development of the region of Angkor (APSARA) was officially established by Royal Kret (decree) on 19 February 1995. Having thus completed the fourth request set out by the Committee, Mr Vann Molyvann, stated that the last obligation, that of the enactment of adequate protective legislation will soon be met. A very complete corpus of laws on cultural protection and related matters drawn up with the support of UNESCO and other international partners, which have been approved by the Council of Ministers, is expected to be enacted by the National Assembly before the end of December.

The Committee thanked the Observer from Cambodia for his detailed report and congratulated the Cambodian authorities on the progress which has been made, under difficult circumstances, to safeguard the Angkor World Heritage site and to meet the recommendations made by the Committee in this regard during its 16th Session in Sante Fe (1992). The Committee also recognized the contribution made by Those States Parties which have responded to the UNESCO Director-General's appeal for the safeguarding of Angkor. In particular the Committee commended the achievements made to date to define precise boundaries for the site and its buffer zones, to establish a national protection authority and to set-up a mechanism for the coordination of international assistance. The Committee noted that the legal protection which has been given to the site under Royal Decree has been adopted by the Royal Cambodian Government and is under consideration by Parliament. The Committee invited the Cambodian authorities to provide information at its next session of the follow-up to the legal process. Recognizing the still-prevailing exceptional conditions at the site, the Committee decided to retain Angkor on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

The Secretariat recommends the Committee to take note of the written information provided by the Secretariat and to adopt the following:

"The Committee requested the Cambodian Government for an early adoption of the cultural property protection law. The Committee decided to retain the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger."

Report year: 1995
Cambodia
Date of Inscription: 1992
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 1992-2004
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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