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Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara

United Republic of Tanzania
Factors affecting the property in 2013*
  • Erosion and siltation/ deposition
  • Governance
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Deterioration of the architectural heritage fabric

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Lack of approved boundaries for the property and buffer zones linked to the land-use plans and appropriate protection;
  • Deterioration of the architectural heritage fabric;
  • Sea wave erosion;
  • Theft of stone from ruins for use as building material;
  • Lack of functioning local consultative committee;
  • Lack of implementation of the conservation and management plans.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Deterioration and decay leading to the collapse of the historical and archaeological structures for which the property was inscribed 

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2013

Total amount granted: USD 201,390 from the Norwegian Funds-in-Trust for UNESCO rehabilitation project

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2013
Requests approved: 4 (from 1983-2009)
Total amount approved : 46,340 USD
Missions to the property until 2013**

February 2004: ICOMOS mission; June 2008 and March 2009: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS reactive monitoring missions

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2013

On 7 February 2013, a report on the state of conservation of the property was submitted by the State Party. The report includes information on the current conditions as well as a detailed chart on the progress made towards the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Additional information submitted includes the project for Integrated Preservation at Kilwa Kisiwani (Part of the Large Grants Program 2011 for World Monuments Fund) and an Interim report on the Study of the Coastal Environment in the Kilwa Kisiwani area.

a)         Management system

The report mentions that the updating of the management plan will be finalised by June 2013, as part of the Integrated Preservation Project. In order to secure resources, discussions for collaborative endeavours are being carried out with the World Monuments Fund, CRAterre, Communauté d’agglomération du Pays Rochefortais (CAPR) and the Aga Khan Foundation. These would address both conservation concerns but also issues pertaining to heritage development and capacity building within the local community to ensure a sustained approach to conservation and development.

b)         Clarification of boundaries and delineation of buffer zone of the property

Limited progress has been achieved on this issue to date. However, the State Party reports that the process of surveying the boundaries of the property will be completed by April 2013, through a contract between the World Monuments Fund and Ardhi University (ARU) in Dar es Salaam. As for the potential extension of the property, this will be examined once the conditions for removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger are met and when conditions of the Kilwa Kivinje and Sanje ya Kati are improved through the documentation and restoration programme. 

c)         Land Use Plan

The State Party reports that the process began by undertaking a social economic survey and holding two stakeholder meetings. The plan will be completed by April 2013, contingent upon the approval by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the contract between the World Monuments Fund and ARU.

d)        Progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures

Rehabilitation of heritage monuments

The State Party reports than significant progress has been made in the restoration of heritage monuments and expects that by June 2013 the benchmark of 70% of buildings rehabilitated will be met. It is considered that with the sustained interventions, most monuments are in good state of conservation, a condition that will be preserved through a maintenance plan. Since capacity building has been addressed through the implementation of diverse projects, there is now a conservation team with the adequate skills to continue these actions.

Establishment of boundaries and extension of the property and Land Use Plan

As aforementioned, it is expected that these corrective measures will be fully addressed by May 2013.

Fully established on-site administrative structures

The State Party reports that the property has a proper administrative structure with four sections under the site manager. To date, it is functional and has simplified management and distribution of responsibilities.

Halt sea-wave action

Numerous actions have been implemented to control the active erosion near the monuments; therefore the area that was treated is stable. Within the framework of the World Monuments Fund project, a study on the coastal environments in Kilwa Kisiwani was carried out in April 2012 to identify risks and identify measures for their control and mitigation. The implementation of proposed actions will require the collaboration of local and international development partners. In addition, a maintenance plan is needed for the current sea walls. The State Party recognises that this will need long-term attention, including measures along the Malinda and Garza sea front and the Makutani monument complexes.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2013

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note with satisfaction the significant progress that has been made by the State Party in addressing the conditions that warranted the inclusion of the property in the List of World Heritage in Danger. They however wish to underscore the importance of clarifying the boundaries, finalising the management plan and securing the necessary resources for the sustained implementation of the proposed actions as well as the functionality of the management system. Given that the State Party plans to address these remaining measures within the next six months, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that it would be timely for a reactive monitoring mission to visit the property in order to ascertain whether the conditions for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger have been met.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2013
37 COM 7A.22
Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) (C 144)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7A,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7A.19 adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3.  Notes with appreciation the progress made by the State Party in the implementation of the corrective measures and encourages it to continue its efforts, particularly in the approval and the sustained implementation of the management plan and the clarification of the boundaries of the property;

4.  Requests the State Party to provide three printed and electronic copies of the draft revised management plan for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

5.  Also requests the State Party to invite a World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property to review the current state of conservation and evaluate whether the conditions for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger have been met;

6.  Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014 , an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014;

7.  Decides   to retain the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

37 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (retained properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-13/37.COM/7A, WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add and WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add.
  2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 37 COM 7A.29 )
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 37 COM 7A.30 )
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 37 COM 7A.16 )
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 37 COM 7A.37 )
  • Colombia, Los Katíos National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.17 )
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.2 )
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.3 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.4 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.5 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.6 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.7 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.8 )
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 37 COM 7A.23 )
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.10 )
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 37 COM 7A.32 )
  • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 37 COM 7A.33 )
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.18 )
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 37 COM 7A.14 )
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 37 COM 7A.24 )
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 37 COM 7A.25 )
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 37 COM 7A.26 )
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 37 COM 7A.11 )
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 37 COM 7A.19 )
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 37 COM 7A.20 )
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 37 COM 7A.12 )
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 37 COM 7A.27 )
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 37 COM 7A.36 )
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 37 COM 7A.38 )
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.13 )
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 37 COM 7A.34 )
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 37 COM 7A.21 )
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 37 COM 7A.22 )
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 37 COM 7A.35 )
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.15 )
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 37 COM 7A.39 )
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 37 COM 7A.28 )
Draft Decision:   37 COM 7A.22

The World Heritage Committee,

1.         Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7A,

2.         Recalling Decision 36 COM 7A.19 adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3.         Notes with appreciation the progress made by the State Party in the implementation of the corrective measures and encourages it to continue its efforts, particularly in the approval and the sustained implementation of the management plan and the clarification of the boundaries of the property;

4.         Requests the State Party to provide three printed and electronic copies of the draft revised management plan for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

5.         Also requests the State Party to invite a World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property to review the current state of conservation and evaluate whether the conditions for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger have been met;

6.         Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014.

7.         Decides to retain the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

 

Report year: 2013
United Republic of Tanzania
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)
Danger List (dates): 2004-2014
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 37COM (2013)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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