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Vézelay, Church and Hill

Vézelay, Church and Hill

Shortly after its foundation in the 9th century, the Benedictine abbey of Vézelay acquired the relics of St Mary Magdalene and since then it has been an important place of pilgrimage. St Bernard preached the Second Crusade there in 1146 and Richard the Lion-Hearted and Philip II Augustus met there to leave for the Third Crusade in 1190. With its sculpted capitals and portal, the Madeleine of Vézelay – a 12th-century monastic church – is a masterpiece of Burgundian Romanesque art and architecture.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Basilique et colline de Vézelay

Peu après sa fondation au IXe siècle, le monastère bénédictin a acquis les reliques de sainte Marie-Madeleine et devint, depuis lors, un haut lieu de pèlerinage. Saint Bernard y prêcha la deuxième croisade (1146). Richard Cœur de Lion et Philippe Auguste s'y retrouvèrent au départ de la troisième croisade (1190). La basilique Sainte-Madeleine, église monastique du XIIe siècle, est un chef-d'œuvre de l'art roman bourguignon tant par son architecture que par ses chapiteaux et son portail sculptés.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

بازيليك وتلة فيزيلاي

بعد تشييده في القرن التاسع عشر بفترة وجيزة، استحوذ الدير التابع للرهبان البندكتيين ذخائر القديسة ماري-مادلين وأصبح، منذ ذلك الحين، مكاناً مرموقا يقصده الحجيج. وقد بشر فيه القديس برنار بحربه الصليبية الثانية (عام 1146)، فيما اهتدى إليه كلّ من ريشار قلب الأسد وفيليب أوغست في بداية الحملة الصليبية الثالثة (عام 1190). تُعتبر بازيليك القديسة مادلين، وهي كنيسة رهبانية تعود للقرن الثاني عشر، إحدى تُحف الفن الروماني البرغونيّ النادرة سواء من حيث هندستها أو من حيث بواباتها أو مداخلها المنحوتة.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

韦兹莱教堂和山丘

韦兹莱本笃会修道院建于公元9世纪,建成不久后便安置了圣女玛丽亚·马德莱娜(St Mary Magdalene)遗体,从此便成了朝圣要地。1146年,圣贝尔纳多(St Bernard)在此为第二次十字军东征进行了布道。1190年勇猛善战的狮心王理查德和菲利浦二世奥古斯都在此相会,然后踏上了第三次十字军东征的路途。韦兹莱的马德莱大教堂是12世纪的一个修道院式的教堂,柱头和正门都有精美雕刻,是勃艮第罗马式艺术和建筑杰作。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Церковь и холм в Везле

Вскоре после своего основания в IX в. бенедиктинский монастырь в Везле приобрел мощи Св. Марии Магдалины и с тех пор стал важным местом паломничества. Св. Бернар провозгласил здесь начало Второго крестового похода, а Ричард Львиное Сердце и Филипп II Август встретились в 1190 г. перед отправлением в Третий поход. Церковь Мадлен в Везле – монастырская церковь XII в. – является шедевром бургундского романского искусства и архитектуры.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Basílica y colina de Vézelay

Poco después de su fundación en el siglo XI, el monasterio benedictino de Vézelay adquirió las reliquias de Santa María Magdalena y se convirtió en un importante lugar de peregrinación. Aquí fue donde predicó San Bernardo la segunda cruzada (1146), y también donde se encontraron Ricardo Corazón de León y el rey Felipe Augusto de Francia para emprender la tercera (1190). Con su pórtico y capiteles magníficamente esculpidos, la basílica de Santa María Magdalena, iglesia monástica del siglo XII, es una obra maestra del arte y la arquitectura románicas borgoñonas.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ヴェズレーの教会と丘

source: NFUAJ

Kerk en heuvel van Vézelay

De Benedictijnse kloostergemeenschap van Vézelay werd in de 9e eeuw gesticht. Kort daarna verwierf het de relikwieën van de heilige Maria Magdalena en vanaf dat moment is het een belangrijk pelgrimsoord geweest. Sint Bernard riep er in 1146 op tot de Tweede Kruistocht en de Engelse koning Richard Leeuwenhart en de Franse koning Philips II Augustus ontmoetten elkaar op deze plek bij het vertrek voor de Derde Kruistocht in 1190. De Madeleine van Vézelay – een 12e-eeuwse kloosterkerk – is een meesterwerk van de Bourgondische romaanse kunst en architectuur, met zijn gebeeldhouwde kapitelen en portaal.

Source: unesco.nl

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Vézelay, Church and Hill (France) © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The church of St Mary Magdalene is a former French abbey established in Vézelay in Burgundy-Franche-Comté, in the department of Yonne. Located on a high hill, still called the “eternal hill", this landmark of Christianity of the Middle Ages can be seen from afar.

Established in the 9th century as a Benedictine abbey, the church became famous in the mid-11th century when the belief spread that it held the relics of St Mary Magdalene. It became a place of pilgrimage, all the more popular because it was located on one of the roads leading to Santiago de Compostela. The city benefited from the influx of pilgrims, as in the 12th century its population was between 8,000 and 10,000 inhabitants, a considerable number for the time. Vézelay then became a centre of great importance for the West. In 1146, St Bernard preached the Second Crusade there before King Louis VII, Queen Eleanor and a throng of nobles, prelates and people gathered on the hill. In 1190, Richard the Lion-Hearted and Philip Augustus met there to leave for the Third Crusade. In 1217, Francis of Assisi chose the hill of Vézelay to found the first Franciscan establishment on French soil.

The church of St Mary Magdalene is also a masterpiece of Burgundian Romanesque art as exemplified by its architecture, capitals and carved portal. The central nave (1120-1140), slightly distorted by the downward thrust of the groined vaults, is punctuated by its large horseshoe arches of dual-coloured voussoirs, and capitals which are unique in style and the variety of subjects portrayed (profane allegories, biblical and hagiographic scenes). But it is the sculpted portal between the nave and the narthex which has brought universal fame to Vézelay.  The tympanum bears the "Mission of the Apostles", which, proceeding from an encyclopaedic inspiration, is revealing of the state of science during this period. The entire scene is organized around Christ in Glory blessing the apostles and assigning them the mission of converting the nations. This theme is quite unique in Romanesque art.

Criterion (i): The church of St Mary Magdalene of Vézelay is a masterpiece of Burgundian Romanesque art. The central nave (1120-1140), effectively punctuated by its two-tone arch ribs, is adorned with a series of capitals unique in style and variety of subjects. Its carved portal placed between the nave and narthex, with, notably, the tympanum of the “Mission of the Apostles", makes it one of the major monuments of Western Romanesque art.

Criterion (vi): In the 12th century, the hill of Vézelay was a choice location where medieval Christian spirituality, reaching a sort of paroxysm, gave rise to various and specific expressions, from prayer and chanson de geste to the Crusades.

Integrity

Vézelay, the "eternal hill", has retained intact the landscape qualities of the site where its abbey was founded in the Early Middle Ages. It is dominated by the abbey church, the existence and activity of which gave rise to the town which ends at the foot of the slope. Beyond spread fields, meadows and forests.

Authenticity

The Revolution and its consequences resulted in the disappearance of the major part of the abbey, with the exception of the abbey church. In a state close to ruin, this was the first restoration site led by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, one of the fathers of monumental restoration, who managed to save the edifice (1839-1848) by rebuilding part of its vaults.

Protection and management requirements

Inscribed in 1840 on the first List of Historic Monuments of France, the church of Vézelay is one of the first medieval buildings whose conservation was undertaken proactively, due solely to its historic and artistic merits. Since then, an entire set of protection measures, taken in application of the Heritage Code (historic monuments, outstanding heritage site) or the Environmental Code (listed site) has been progressively developed, which apply to the church, the village, the hill and the surrounding landscape. The property is protected by a buffer zone of 18,373 ha, which corresponds to sites listed under the Environmental Code. The property, its buffer zone and the surrounding landscape are therefore protected from potential development pressures.

The church and the public spaces of Vézelay belong to the commune, which is responsible for their conservation and development, under the scientific and technical control of the State.

A major site operation is underway to improve visitor flow management and vehicular traffic around the property.

The landscape integrity of the property receives special attention from the State services in order to reconcile the preservation of Outstanding Universal Value with the objectives of energy transition. The management plan for the property is under preparation.