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Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro, a landscape of Arts and Sciences

Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro, a landscape of Arts and Sciences
Located at the urban heart of Madrid, this cultural landscape evolved since the creation of the tree-lined Paseo del Prado avenue, a prototype of the Hispanic alameda, in the 16th century. The avenue features major fountains, notably the Fuente de Apolo and the Fuente de Neptuno, and the Fuente de Cibeles, an iconic symbol of the city, surrounded by prestigious buildings. The site embodies a new idea of urban space and development from the enlightened absolutist period of the 18th century. Buildings dedicated to the arts and sciences join others in the site that are devoted to industry, healthcare and research. Collectively, they illustrate the aspiration for a utopian society during the height of the Spanish Empire, linked to the enlightened idea of democratization of knowledge, and exercised major influence in Latin America. The 120-hectare Jardines del Buen Retiro (Garden of Pleasant Retreat), a remnant of the 17th-century Buen Retiro Palace, constitutes the largest part of the property. The site also houses the terraced Royal Botanical Garden and the largely residential neighbourhood of Barrio Jerónimos with its rich variety of 19th- and 20th-century buildings that include cultural and scientific venues.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Paseo del Prado et Buen Retiro, un paysage des arts et des sciences

Situé au cœur de la ville de Madrid, ce paysage culturel a évolué depuis la création, au XVIe siècle, de l’avenue bordée d’arbres du Paseo del Prado, prototype de l’alameda hispanique. L’avenue comprend de grandes fontaines, notamment la Fuente de Apolo, la Fuente de Neptuno, et la Fuente de Cibeles, symbole emblématique de la ville, entourée d’édifices prestigieux. Ce site incarne une nouvelle conception de l’espace urbain et un modèle d’urbanisme remontant à la période de l’absolutisme éclairé du XVIIIe siècle. Les édifices dédiés aux arts et aux sciences se joignent à d’autres, consacrés à l’industrie, aux soins de santé et à la recherche. Tous illustrent collectivement l’aspiration à une société utopique durant l’apogée de l’Empire espagnole lié aux idées des Lumières de democratisation du savoir et a exercé une influence notable en Amérique latine. Les Jardines del Buen Retiro (Jardins de la Bonne Retraite) couvrant 120 ha, vestige du palais du Buen Retiro du XVIIe siècle, constituent la plus grande partie du bien. Le site abrite également le Jardin botanique royal en terrasses et le quartier essentiellement résidentiel de Barrio Jerónimos, qui présente une grande variété d’édifices des XIXe et XXe siècles, notamment des lieux culturels et scientifiques.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

جادَّة باسيو ديل برادو وحديقة بوين ريتيرو، مشهد حافل بالفنون والعلوم

يقع هذا المشهد الثقافي الذي يمتد على مساحة قدرها 200 هكتار في قلب مدينة مدريد، وقد أنشئ في القرن السادس عشر حيث كان عبارة عن جادَّة تصطف على جانبيها الأشجار، وكانت نموذجاً للألميدا "alameda" الإسبانية. وتضم الجادَّة بين جنباتها نوافير كبيرة، مثل نافورة سيبيل ونافورة نبتون، وساحة سيبيل التي تعتبر أحد الرموز البارزة في المدينة، وهي محاطة بمبانٍ عريقة. ويجسِّد هذا الموقع تصوراً جديداً للحيز الحضري ويعتبر تطوراً للحكم المطلق المستنير خلال القرن الثامن عشر. وتجتمع في الموقع الأبنية المخصصة للفنون والعلوم مع تلك المكرسة للصناعة والرعاية الصحية والبحوث، التي تعكس مجتمعة التطلع نحو بناء مجتمع طوباوي، الذي كان سائداً خلال فترة أوج الإمبراطوروية الإسبانية. وتشغل حديقة "بوين ريتيرو" (أي المعتكف اللطيف)، أكبر جزء من الموقع حيث تبلغ مساحتها 120 هكتاراً، وهي من آثار قصر "بوين ريتيرو"، وتظهر فيها أنماط مختلفة للحدائق تعود إلى الفترة الممتدة من القرن التاسع عشر حتى وقتنا الحاضر. كما يضمُّ الموقع بين جنباته حديقة النباتات الملكية المدرَّجة وحي "باريو جيرونيموس" الذي يطغى عليه الطابع السكني، ويتميز بالتنوع الكبير في أبنيته التي تعود إلى القرنين التاسع عشر والعشرين، والذي يتضمن مقرات ثقافية. 

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

普拉多大道和丽池公园,艺术与科学的景观之地

这个占地200公顷的文化景观位于马德里的城市中心,自西班牙式林荫大道的原型普拉多大道于16世纪落成以来不断发展。大道的特色是大型喷泉(尤其是大地女神喷泉和海神喷泉),以及被知名建筑环绕的城市地标大地女神广场。该遗产地体现了18世纪开明专制主义时期对城市空间和发展的新理念,艺术和科学领域的建筑与工业、医疗保健和研究用途的建筑相得益彰,共同阐释了西班牙帝国鼎盛时期人们对乌托邦社会的渴望。面积120公顷的丽池花园是建于17世纪的布恩·丽池宫的遗迹,是该遗产区最大的组成部分,展示了从19世纪至今的多种园林风格。遗产地还包含错落有致的皇家植物园和多为民居的耶罗尼姆斯街区,那里有丰富多样的19-20世纪建筑,其中也包括文化场所。

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Paseo del Prado и Buen Retiro, ландшафт искусств и наук

Расположенный в центре Мадрида культурный ландшафт площадью 200 гектаров сформировался с момента создания в XVI веке засаженного деревьями бульвара Paseo del Prado, прототипа латиноамериканской аламеды. На бульваре расположены крупные фонтаны, в частности Фонтан Сибелес (Fuente de Cibeles) и Фонтан Нептун (Fuente de Neptuno), а также окруженная престижными зданиями Площадь Сибелес (Plaza de Cibeles), знаковый символ города. Объект воплощает в себе новую идею городского пространства и развития в период просвещенного абсолютизма XVIII века. Здания, посвященные искусству и науке, соседствуют со зданиями, посвященными промышленности, здравоохранению и исследованиям. В совокупности они демонстрируют стремление к утопическому обществу в период расцвета Испанской империи. Парк Buen Retiro («Парк приятного уединения») площадью 120 гектаров, оставшийся от дворца Buen Retiro XVII века, составляет большую часть объекта. В парке представлены различные стили садоводства с XIX века до наших дней. На территории объекта также находится Королевский ботанический сад с террасами и преимущественно жилой квартал Barrio Jerónimos с его богатым разнообразием зданий XIX и XX веков, включая различные культурные объекты.

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Paseo del Prado y el Buen Retiro, paisaje de las artes y las ciencias

Este paisaje cultural situado en el centro urbano de Madrid evolucionó desde su creación en el siglo XVI como una avenida arbolada, el Paseo del Prado, prototipo de alameda hispánica. El paseo cuenta con fuentes monumentales como la Fuente de Apolo, la Fuente de Neptuno y la Fuente de la Cibeles, símbolo icónico de la ciudad, rodeada de edificios emblemáticos. El sitio representa una idea innovadora del espacio y del urbanismo correspondiente al periodo absolutista ilustrado del siglo XVIII. Los edificios dedicados a las artes y las ciencias se unen a otros dedicados a la industria, a la sanidad y a la investigación. Juntos, representan la aspiración, en el apogeo del Imperio español, a una sociedad utópica ligada a la idea ilustrada de democratización del conocimiento, que tuvo amplia influencia en Latinoamérica. Las 120 hectáreas de los Jardines del Buen Retiro, vestigio del conjunto del Palacio del Buen Retiro construido en el siglo XVII, constituyen la mayor parte del bien. El sitio también incluye el Real Jardín Botánico, dispuesto en terrazas, y el Barrio residencial de los Jerónimos, con una rica variedad de edificios de los siglos XIX y XX que incluyen centros culturales y científicos.

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Royal Astronomical Observatory © Ayuntamiento de Madrid
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro, a landscape of Arts and Sciences is located at the urban heart of Madrid. It includes the Paseo del Prado as the prototype of a Hispanic alameda (tree-lined avenue) from the 16th century and modified in the 18th century, a designed public space providing natural elements within the city for the enjoyment of its citizens. The property is an example of a new idea of urban green space and of an urban development model from the enlightened absolutist period of the 18th century. This model exercised influence in Latin America, illustrating the aspiration for a utopian society in Spanish overseas territory. Three major and adjacent parts, the Paseo del Prado, Jardines del Buen Retiro (Gardens of the Buen Retiro) and the Real Jardín Botánico (Royal Botanic Garden), combine culture and nature as a designed cultural landscape in an urban environment that has evolved over centuries. It was a new concept and a complex project with a clear social element that included the establishment of an innovative group of buildings and facilities dedicated to science and to educating the public, and which would also embellish the city. Buildings dedicated to the arts and sciences joined others devoted to industry, healthcare and research in a 200-hectare cultural landscape. Its special links to arts and sciences increased over time, resulting in an extraordinary area that is still dedicated to nature for the leisure of citizens, together with museums, cultural institutions, research and scientific centres.

Criterion (ii): The Paseo del Prado is believed to be the first public green space designed within a European capital in the early modern period. It is a tree-lined avenue, originating in the 16th century though substantially modified in the 18th century, that had a strong influence in Spanish America as a model contributing to town development. It was the first and an important example of an alameda or paseo.

Criterion (iv): The Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro is an urban development model, featuring nature and culture, of the enlightened absolutist period, a prototype of a new idea of improvement of urban space with a strong social content guided by rational criteria to enhance ornamentation, hygiene and functionality. It is an important expression of enlightened ideals applied to town development projects with the distinctive addition of the sciences as an essential component, all with a view to making knowledge widely available to citizens. Its different parts are adjacent and linked by the idea of creating a great urban space featuring natural elements (composed of a tree-lined avenue, park and botanical garden) in different stages of history from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment.

Criterion (vi): The Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro represents a utopian society linked to the arts and the sciences, the paradigm of culture, within a framework of natural elements within the city. It also represents the idea of making knowledge available to citizens, providing access to the sciences and arts, in an area which is otherwise devoted to leisure. It was an idea to improve society that crossed the borders of Spain and extended to Latin America. The arts, sciences, healthcare, industry and research are all part of an exchange of human and scientific values that promote the dissemination of knowledge, and their public and social roles have been preserved with outstanding vitality.

Integrity

All attributes of Outstanding Universal Value are preserved within the property’s boundaries; they are in good condition, are adequately maintained and no significant neglect has been identified. The property retains its integrity as a planned series of urban developments. None the less, challenges to integrity include the ambitious enlargement of museums and historical buildings in the past, as well as the presence of a large sporting complex in the Gardens of the Buen Retiro. Additional issues relate to the vegetation and some urban fabric, such as pavements. Factors to be managed include short-term intense uses and overexploitation, adaptation to climate change, specifically in relation to the trees in the Paseo del Prado, Jardines del Buen Retiro and Real Jardín Botánico, as well as traffic and air pollution.

Authenticity

The attributes of the property have demonstrated authenticity which is supported by extensive original documents, plans, etc. in municipal archives such as the Archivo de Villa, and others such as the archives of the Real Jardín Botánico. The green areas, the Paseo del Prado, Jardines del Buen Retiro and Real Jardín Botánico mostly retain their historical use and function. Many of the buildings on the Hill of Sciences are still used as originally intended, and other buildings such as the Prado Museum and the Atocha railway station preserve their original use. However, authenticity has been diminished by changes to the historical interiors of some buildings.

Protection and management requirements

The three main green areas comprising most of the property are listed as Properties of Cultural Interest (Bien de Interés Cultural), the highest legal protection available, along with more than 30 other elements (fountains and monuments) and 40 major buildings included within the property. About 300 individual trees are protected through inclusion in municipal inventories and the Catálogo de Árboles Singulares de la Comunidad de Madrid.

Three different institutional levels are involved in the legal protection of the property: national, providing the general framework with the Ley de Patrimonio Histórico Español (LPHE, Ley 16/1985), regional (Ley de Patrimonio Histórico de la Comunidad de Madrid, Ley 3/2013) and municipal, as the whole area is protected by the Madrid General Urban Development Plan (PGOUM). A buffer zone has not yet been established although consideration is being given to its creation based on the PGOUM.

A new management system has been tested and implemented and takes account of existing public and private management initiatives. It is based on coordination between many parties, including public and private institutions, professional corporations and local associations. It is designed to function at different levels, promoting engagement with the property by citizens and stakeholders. This system coordinates different departments and agencies involved in the property, particularly the institutional agencies with legal responsibilities, and addresses implementation by different groups: a World Heritage Commission, composed of the three institutional levels (state, region and local), a Scientific Council, composed of independent experts, and an Advisory Civic and Social Council formed of the representatives of the three administrations, private institutions, professional corporations, neighbourhood and heritage associations, and cultural and scientific institutions and other stakeholders. The role and independence of the Civic and Social Board could be enhanced as a means of ensuring community involvement. The inventory of all the buildings needs to be finalized. Further development and implementation of an interpretation strategy for the overall property and the full monitoring system, with special care to achieve an integrated approach, needs to be addressed in the management system.

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