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World Heritage Convention

Decision 27 COM 7B.47
Borobudur Temple Compounds (Indonesia)

The World Heritage Committee [29],

1. Having examined the state of conservation of this property,;

2. Underscores the importance of reinforcing the legal management and development control mechanisms provided under the existing 5-zone management scheme for the property;

3. Requests the State Party to evaluate and possibly redefine the World Heritage protective boundaries and management guidelines pertaining to Zones 4 and 5 taking into consideration the findings of the recent research which indicate that the mandala form of the main monument is repeated at a larger scale in the surrounding landscape, and thus requires protection in an integrated manner;

4. Recommends that the State Party consider removing the new, paved parking lot from Zone 1 and restore the area to grass and shrubbery.  A small drop-off area for VIPs may be developed in front of the current guardian's house, with parking for VIP vehicles retained in Zone 2 at the foot of the hill on which the main monument is located; 

5. Recommends further that the State Party strictly minimizes vehicular access to Zone 1, considers removing vehicular parking from Zone 2, and bans major new road developments within Zone 3, although improvement of existing roads may be permitted.  As with all development proposals affecting the property, the State Party is invited to submit in advance to the Committee, any proposal for the development of roads;

6. Requests the State Party, as a first step, to organize and control the informal commercial activities within Zone 2, possibly through a system that involves the construction of bazaar facilities and licensing of stall occupants;

7. Recommends that, as a second step, a socio-economic study be undertaken to plan for a more viable commercial and marketing strategy of long-term benefit to members of the surrounding community, linked directly to the cultural traditions of the property and its surrounding area.  The long-term strategy for commercial development of the property must ensure that the environmental buffer zone around the main monument, and contained within current Zones 3 and 4 retains its agricultural or forested character; 

8. Expresses concern over the potential negative impact of the construction of major commercial/shopping centres near the property and within any of the protection zones, and recommends that such commercial developments be located within existing market places and commercial districts of the local towns;  

9. Endorses the national policy to improve the interpretation of the World Heritage value of the property to visitors, giving due emphasis to the local cultural history, intangible cultural heritage, meditative cultural practices which contribute to promote understanding of the spiritual and artistic values for which the property was recognized as World Heritage;

10. Recommends that visitor management guidelines pertaining to Zone 1 be elaborated to enhance the visitor's educational and authentic cultural experience of the property through regulations which encourage respect for the property;

11. Notes with concern the lack of management co-ordination between the authorities responsible for managing the different zones of the property;

12. Requests the State Party to establish an appropriate mechanism for the full co-ordination of the implementation of management policies and practices within the 5 zones, to better safeguard the entire property and simultaneously promote sustainable development; 

13. Requests that the findings and recommendations of the UNESCO-ICOMOS mission be examined in depth during the Experts Meeting on the Safeguarding of Borobudur, scheduled to take place in July 2003;

14. Requests the State Party to submit a report to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2004 on the short-term corrective measures taken and long-term development strategy proposed for the property in order that the World Heritage Committee can examine the state of conservation of the property at its 28th session in 2004.

[29]  Decision adopted without discusssion.

Decision Code
27 COM 7B.47
Focal Point
States Parties 1
State of conservation reports
2003 Borobudur Temple Compounds