Kebun Raya Bogor
Indonesian National Commission for UNESCO
Bogor City, West Java Province
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Kebun Raya Bogor or Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG) is an ex situ conservation area located in the administrative area of Bogor City, West Java Province, Indonesia. Area of BBG was 75.4 ha. Bogor Botanical Garden is at N 6º35‟32.78” S 6º36‟13.28” W 106º47‟36.72” E 106º48‟17.6”
In general, the topography of BBG is relatively flat and slightly bumpy. Located at 260 m above sea level. BBG is located in the heart of Bogor municipality.
Bogor Botanic Gardens is one of the plant conservation areas that became important evidence in the historical development of science in Indonesia. There are more than 24 research institutions on natural sciences directly and directly established by Bogor Botanic Gardens located in Buitenzorg/Bogor. In the beginning the establishment of Bogor Botanic Gardens was intended as a place of acclimatization of plant species originating from foreign countries that have high economic value. Now, Bogor Botanic Gardens not only conserve the types of economic value, but also conserve the species of plants that are rare, endemic, scientific value and have the potential to be developed from the entire tropics. Collection of plants arranged in the form of blocks and grouped by taxonomic and thematic classification pattern.
As a site that witnessed the history of the development of science in Indonesia, BBG has an important cultural background or historical buildings and landmarks.
The physical characteristics of Bogor Botanical Garden is dominated by space with vegetation cover with some open area in the form of grass field. The buildings are scattered throughout the botanical gardens. The shape and style of historic buildings that exist within the botanical garden area is a colonial architectural style. Road network pattern in BBG is linear and organic network, with pavement asphalt for main road and gico stone for path.
Bogor Botanic Gardens is an area that has an important role in the development of natural science in Indonesia. Bogor Botanic Gardens is the oldest botanical garden in Southeast Asia, founded by German botanists, Dr. C.G.C. Reinwardt on May 18, 1817. The botanic gardens located in the center of Bogor City and covering an area of 75.4 ha is a conservation center of wet climate tropical lowland plants with a collection of 12,350 specimens included in 213 families, 1,201 genera and 3,172 species.
Bogor Botanic Gardens will celebrate its bicentenary anniversary on May 18th 2017. It had much experience of ex-situ conservation of plants with its strengths on utilization and basic botanical research during the Dutch Era (1817-1945 and 1948-1952). The “golden era” for research was during Treub's Directorships in the early 1900s with the invention of auxin and mycorrhiza.
Innovations in economic botany resulted in increasing wealth for the Dutch Government with the development of plantations for agro-industries for exotic species i.e. oil palm, rubber, coffee, tea, quinine and tobacco. Increasing plant collection was followed by many publications including Floras and new species descriptions. Bioprospecting via ethnobotanical research did not result in emergent industry except for ”Jamu”.
During Japanese Era, we experienced status quo (1945-1948). Under Indonesian rule, the management of plant collection and research has gone through several reorganizations and LIPI was founded. In 1990s plant exploration was re-charged and resulted in many new collections and new species discoveries. During this period local government botanic gardens were initiated to face the new challenge of Indonesian plant conservation. To date 30 new local Botanic Gardens have been established. Current research focuses on plant conservation, reintroduction and restoration, domestication, economic botany and plants and climate change.
Justification of Outstanding Universal Value
Kebun Raya Bogor (Bogor Botanic Gardens) has an outstanding universal values based on following selection criteria:
Bogor Botanic Gardens is a unique in terms of the histories of plant domestication such as palm oil trees, many introduced from tropics around the world as well this Garden as a parent which generated many other scientific institutions following its historic reputation as the world research center of tropical biology.
As it is the oldest botanic gardens in Southeast Asia. Bogor Botanic Gardens has inherited the outstanding universal values of the plants, landscapes, buildings, artefacts, botanical sciences, nature and the environments from generation to generation over 200 years becoming a nation identity as well as contributing to the global economical development. Bogor Botanic Gardens is also the research center for tropical botany that resulted in many scientific discoveries in botany contributing to humankind prosperity.
Bogor Botanic Gardens is distinguished by the many landscape and architectural designs as well as heritage trees that influence the livelihood and town-planning surroundings. Furthermore, the establishment of Bogor Botanic Gardens was an important stage of Indonesian history as Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens generated other scientific institution that could be identified as the starting point of scientific institutional and organizational process in Indonesia; there were more than 24 institutions generated from Bogor Botanic Gardens even Indonesian Institute of Sciences/Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) as the parent/headquarter institution of Bogor Botanic Gardens although LIPI (originally MIPI) itself was established in 23 August 1967.
Bogor Botanic Gardens was established as a solution to Indonesian development bridging between conservation and economic (people empowerment) interests.
Criterion (ii): Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens (Kebun Raya Bogor) is the oldest botanic gardens in Southeast Asia. Since the 19th century, Bogor Botanic Gardens has been the oldest centre for tropical biology research in Southeast Asia, Bogor Botanic Gardens had played important roles:
- many type herbariums of tropical plant species were originated from Bogor Botanic Gardens to be kept in Leiden University.
- continuously play a leading role in the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise in tropical botany and agricultural sciences such as the invention of auxine hormon was in Treub Laboratory.
- as references for many botanic gardens in the tropical areas worldwide for an authentic living collection management for tropical plants.
- Bogor Botanic Gardens contributed significantly in the acclimatization for growing oil palm before further development and distribution to many industries and plantations throughout Southeast Asia and Asia.
At the beginning, the initiation of Bogor Botanical Garden was aimed as a place for research and acclimatization of plants which have high economic value. Some of plants have been widely developed and generated valuable national income such as oil palm, tea, coffee, rubber, kina, and tobacco and these were initially developed in Bogor Botanical Garden. Then, Bogor Botanical Garden was developed into a research institute on biology and agriculture that play an important role at national and international level.
Bogor Botanic Gardens now is focusing on plant conservation. Instead of inhibiting development, conservation should be understood as an effort to support the utilization of resources and its sustainability. Bogor Botanic Gardens has become a home of old trees that ever become an icon of Indonesia. In Indonesian forests which are still left now, it is getting difficult to find big trees as those are found in Bogor Botanic Gardens.
Besides a conservation center, Bogor Botanic Gardens are known as an area of man-made ecosystem which are located in the center of Bogor city. The Gardens has 12.350 plant specimens consisting of 213 families, 1,201 genera, and 3,172 species. This creates a unique interaction between plants and animals due to the structure of food chain which is different from the natural forest. This Garden also becomes a habitat for various animals such as birds, bats, monitor lizards, snakes, insects, mammals, etc.
Heritage trees are big trees which have a unique value, and cannot be replaced. The major criteria for heritage trees are ages, rarity, size, including their aesthetic, botanic, ecological, and historical values. Bogor Botanical Gardens has nine trees which is suitable to be proposed as world heritage trees:
- Kleinhovia hospita L. (1823)
- Shorea leprosula Miq. (pohon jodoh) (1817) and Ficus albipila.(Miq.) King (pohon jodoh) (1866)
- Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (1913)
- Canarium decumanum Gaertn. (1922)
- Canarium indicum and C. vulgare (jalan kenari) (1825)
- Platymitra macrocarpa Boerl. (1844)
- Sindora bruggemanii de Wit (1841)
Criterion (iv): Bogor Botanic Gardens inspired the architecture of the buildings, artefacts, sites, buildings, monuments and landmarks of Bogor.
Statements of authenticity and/or integrityIntegrity
Bogor Botanic Gardens have the elements which express the Outstanding Universal Values including historic buildings, the original planting layout based on taxonomical group, heritage trees and heritage landscape that bear evidences that the history of Bogor Botanic Gardens as the centre of tropical biology research. The integrity of the Garden properties would be further strengthened by developing additional policies in cooperation with the Bogor city government to apply policies to determine the areas surroundings as the buffer zone of Bogor Botanic Gardens.
The authenticity of Bogor Botanic Gardens is proven by the continuous use as a botanic garden and as a place of scientific research since 1817. The 12 listed buildings are monuments of the past, and reproduce the aesthetic expressions of different periods. They retain their authenticity in terms of design and functions for their original purposes to adapted purposes that remain compatible with their original functions.
Comparison with other similar properties1. Comparison with Padova Botanic Garden, Italy
As one of botanical gardens included in world heritage sites, Padova Botanic Garden is the world‟s first botanical garden that was created in 1545 and becomes the oldest surviving example of this type of cultural property. The garden has played an important role along the history in exchange and widespread of plants and knowledge, as well as representing the foundation of botanical science, scientific exchanges, and understanding of the relationship between nature and culture, particularly in Europe and sub-tropical ecosystem.
In comparison with this aspect, Bogor Botanical Garden is also one of the oldest botanical gardens that was created in 1817 having the similar role in initiating the development of botanical science, scientific exchanges, and the relationship between nature and culture, mainly in Asia and tropical ecosystem which have richer plant biodiversity. Even, the garden also has played an important role in industrial plant acclimatization such as oil palm, tea, coffee, etc. where these plants produce commodities which have high economic values and are able to enhance economic development.
The Padova Botanic Garden also has two important collections consisting of (1) the library that contains more than 50,000 volumes and manuscripts of historical and bibliographic importance and the herbarium, which is the second most extensive in Italy, and (2) there are over 6,000 species, arranged according to systematic, utilitarian and ecological-environmental criteria, as well as thematic collections. Similarly, the Bogor Botanical Garden has two important collections consisting of (1) plant registration that include electronic database, hardcopy database, old manuscript containing the records of old plant collections, and (2) living plant collections, including more or less 5000 plant species in the form of trees, herbs, bush, seeds, etc., arranged according to taxonomic system, and ecological-environmental criteria, even some of plant collections categorized as living type collections which become references for describing plant taxa. In the midst of a rapid biodiversity lost in Asia regions, the Bogor Botanic Garden has played an important role to conserve plant biodiversity.
The Padova Botanic Garden has high scientific values and has made a strong contribution to the development of many scientific disciplines, notably botany, medicine, ecology, and pharmacy. According to this aspect, Bogor Botanic Garden also has made a significant contribution in scientific works especially researches on tropical plant. One of the outstanding results is the finding of Auxin as a growth hormone which nowadays is frequently used in forestry and agriculture to stimulate plant growth and production. Bogor Botanic Garden also has become a place where the well known botanists worldwide doing their research on tropical plant such as Prof. C. G. C. Reinwardt, Dr. C.L. Blume, J.E. Teijsmann, Melchior Treub, etc.
The Padova Botanic Garden also becomes an inspiration for the development of other botanical gardens in Italy and around Europe for both their architectural and functional designs. Similarly, the Bogor Botanic Garden has become an initiator and advisor for the development of 27 botanic gardens throughout Indonesia and has inspired the development of other botanical gardens manly in South East Asia.
The Padova Botanic Garden still continues to become a research center since it was created in the 16th century and it still preserves its original lay out a circular central plot, symbolizing the world, surrounded by a ring of water. Similarly, the Bogor Botanic Garden is still known as one of a prestigious research center in Indonesia under the Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Moreover, there are some historical buildings, cemeteries, parks, including old plant collection (above 100 years) which are still well maintained and well documented.
According to these facts, actually the Bogor Botanic Garden is relatively similar to the Padova Botanic Garden in term of history, culture and scientific influences, as well as their priceless plant collections. The only main difference is Padova Botanical Garden is more focus on conserving sub-tropical plant, whereas Bogor Botanic Garden is more focus on conserving tropical plant.
2. Comparison with Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew was inscribed on the World Heritage List on July 5th 2003. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, were added to the WHS list because of their role in the history of botany and their landscape gardens. The Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew are part of a designed landscape of parks, estates and towns alongside the River Thames. The Gardens illustrate significantperiods in the art of garden design from the 18th to the 20th centuries. They are located in the London suburb of Richmond. The Botanic Gardens at Kew were formally established in 1759. Kew Gardens is home to the world‟s largest and most diverse collection of living plants. This living plant collection is not only a vital scientific resource, but also it creates much of the structure, character and identity of Kew today. Within these collections is a rich horticultural heritage of unique specimens and groups that need identification, interpretation and management. The collection is not static but evolving over time.
Recently Kew is breaking away from the traditional classification system of Bentham & Hooker and has been adopting a system based on molecular systematics. Advances in DNA sequencing (especially within the last 15 years) have provided a completely new avenue of systematic research and have changed the way we view classification. A modern synthesis of molecular studies is ongoing, yet a consensus is beginning to emerge. Combined work under an umbrella group known as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) has produced a widely accepted evolutionary tree. Ongoing redevelopment of the Order Beds at Kew represents this most recent system of plant classification.
With over 8.5 million items, Kew houses the largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world. They represent over 95% of known flowering plant genera and more than 60% of known fungal genera. The collections include around 7 million dried plant specimens in the Herbarium (including 74,000 in spirit); over 1.25 million dried fungal specimens in the Fungarium; over 150,000 glass microscopes slides detailing plant micro-traits; 100,000 economic botany specimens, A broad range of samples documenting use of plants by people, including 42,000 wood collections; the world's largest wild plant DNA and tissue bank (including 48,000 DNA samples representing over 35,000 species and around 7,000 genera); and over 2 billion seeds (from over 37,000 species) in the Millennium Seed Bank; one of the world's largest plant and fungal Library, Art and Archive collections; and a living collection of over 19,000 plant species spanning two sites (Kew Gardens and Wakehurst Place). The parkland character of Kew is a combination of botanical garden, arboretum and woodland. Whilst the Gardens incorporate a historic layering of styles the predominant character is Victorian. The combination of corridor vistas and irregular pathways creates a complex lay-out.
Within this landscape is a collection of iconic and historically significant buildings and glasshouses. Structures such as the Palm House and the Temperate House have international significance and form a fundamental component of the site's identity and character. In addition to these there are many other highly interesting buildings including the Dutch House (Kew Palace), the Pagoda and the School of Horticulture.
These historic landscapes were designed to accommodate visitors, and the site has a history of public access and formal visitor arrangements stretching back over 250 years. This long history has had a major influence on the development of the Gardens.
Kew Botanic Gardens (United Kingdom) provided the initial seedlings, on the other hand, Bogor Botanic Gardens provided the substrates and suitable environment for their planting before further development and distribution throughout Southeast Asia and Asia.
3. Comparison with Singapore Botanic Gardens
Singapore Botanic Gardens which was established in 1859 represents a British tropical colonial botanic gardens while Bogor Botanic Gardens represents a Dutch tropical colonial botanic gardens. The Garden covers 137 ha in total but only 49 ha designated as World Heritage Site. The remaining areas surroundings also function as the buffer zone. Both Singapore Botanic Gardens and Bogor Botanic Gardens bear their roles in conservation, research, education and tourism. However Bogor Botanic Gardens provide environmental services by creating several naturalized habitats for many organisms after hundred years. Both Singapore Botanic Gardens and Bogor Botanic Gardens arecategorized as Cultural Landscape. Singapore Botanic Gardens state that the Gardens were initially is a site where communities under diverse cultures (Melayu, Chinese and British) embraced in a harmony and forming a strong foundation for the country identity. In a comparison, Bogor Botanic Gardens was initially a part of 'Samida' i.e. a (man-made) forrested area created by King Siliwangi (Prabu Siliwangi) Sri Baduga Maharaja (1474-1513) who governed Kingdom Pajajaran. Samida was used to grow potential wild plants from the forests to be cultivated. The Samida initially covered larger area than Bogor Botanic Gardens this time. Samida created green environment that encouraged General Govenor of The Kingdom of The Netherlands to build a resort named 'Buitenzorg' (now: Bogor Palace) in 1745. However the Samida idea/concept was then developed by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1811-1816) who governed Hindia Belanda (now: Indonesia) assigned by England. Sir Raffles used a part of Samida as a lawn of Bogor Palace. “Home and Lawn/Rumah dan Pekarangan” is an ancient concept rooted in the indigineous people (Indonesian/Hindia inhabitants) at the time. So Bogor Botanic Gardens was founded from indigenous-culture root in aculturation with Dutch and British Culture then grown and developed to the International level of scientific world as Bogor Botanic Gardens is the world center for tropical biology research. It was continued to become a parent institution from which 24 institutions were born.
In terms of economic values, Singapore Botanic Gardens has the outstanding universal values such as: the pioneers of rubber industry (at the end of 1880's) and orchid hybrids industry (in 1920's). While Bogor Botanic Gardens is the pioneer of palm oil industry and has the highest number of orchid species living collection. The palm oil plantations distributed all over the world were originated from the seven parent trees of oil palm trees Elaeis guineensis grown in Bogor Botanic Gardens. Currently, the research and development have been conducted by Research and Development Center of Plantation under the Ministry of Agriculture of The Republic of Indonesia. In addition, Indonesia is estimated to have more than 4.000 orchid species and is an ideal place for orchid exploration. Orchid species from this area are already used as parent stocks in breeding by other countries. Observation have been conducted for more than two centuries in Indonesia and many orchid expeditions have been carried out to collect these exotic plants for domestic collection and abroad. As the home of many orchids, Indonesia and especially Bogor have been known as a center of orchid research since the 19th century. There was a dormant period when the country was in economic crisis and the budget for research was limited. But a few decades ago orchid research again gained popularity, along with the increasing value of orchids as an economic commodity. Future research on orchids needs to be developed to maintain the balance between the advancement of orchid science and the economic value orchid, without neglecting their conservation.
From the historical-value point of view, the heritage buildings in Singapore Botanic Gardens are established during 1867-1930. On the other hand, the heritage buildings in Bogor Botanic Gardens are much older i.e. 1817-1884 (?). Furthermore, Singapore Botanic Gardens only has 40 heritage trees (age more than 40 years old); meanwhile, Bogor Botanic Gardens is home to 3700 heritage trees (3000 individuals of more-than-50 year old trees and 700 individuals of more-than-100 year old trees). In terms of landmarks, Singapore Botanic Gardens owns Tanglin Gate (c 1890) among the other tens of heritage structures; meanwhile Bogor Botanic Gardens owns older landmarks such as a 234-year old tomb (c 1784).
Singapore Botanic Gardens and Bogor Botanic Gardens play important roles in raising public awareness. Singapore Botanic Gardens conducts tour guiding, workshops and monthly discussion on biodiversity, conservation and education. Besides tour guiding, Bogor Botanic Gardens offers education package for schoolkids called “Wisata Flora” (Flora Edutainment Package). Bogor Botanic Gardens also actively contributes in capacity buildings such as technical workshops/trainings, apprenticeship and research supervisory for bachelor and post graduate-degree students. These roles lead to the zonation of Singapore Botanic Gardens. The zonation of Singapore Botanic Gardens covers four core zones i.e. (1) Tanglin Core – historic zone, (2) Central Core – tourist &administration zone, (3) Bukit Timah Core – education & learning zone, and (4) Tyersal Learning Forest Core- Education & Learning Zone. Bogor Botanic Gardens also offers nine zones: (1) Living collection zone including plants, tissue cultures, seed bank, DNA bank, spore and pollen banks as well as forested area, (2) Theme gardens/vista zone, (3) Historic zone including buildings, landmarks, artefacts and monuments, (4) Education zone, (5) Herbarium zone for the collection of herbarium, seed and cross-section timber cut museum and spirit herbarium, (6) Administration zone, (7) Propagation zone including nurseries and tissue-culture laboratory (8) Research and development zone, and (9) Documentary collection zone i.e. library and archive room.
Thus, clearly both Gardens hold the same type of collections which are (1) living collection, (2) herbarium collection, and (3) documentary collection. Singapore Botanic Gardens managed fungi collection in their herbarium collection, meanwhile Bogor Botanic Gardens has seed and cross-section timber cut museum. Bogor Botanic Gardens manages seed bank which is complement to the plant collection in the garden. However, in regards to the documentary collection, Singapore Botanic Gardens manages microchips, microfilms, artworks and artefacts.