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Mt. Iglit-Baco National Park

Date of Submission: 16/05/2006
Criteria: (ix)(x)
Category: Natural
Submitted by:
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) - Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau
State, Province or Region:
Occidental and Oriental Mindoro
Coordinates: N6 22 E125 5
Ref.: 5036

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The Mts. Iglit-Baco National Park (MIBNP) was proclaimed by virtue R.A. No. 6148 dated Nov. 11, 1970. As such, it is an initial components of National Integrated Protected Areas System under. Mts. Iglit-Baco NP encompasses at least eight (8) major river systems  and  has  a  rugged  terrain  composed  of  slopes,  river  gorgers and plateaus.

Portions of the Park are covered by upland hardwoods, such as Anthocephalus chinensis, Artocarpus blancoi, Ficus nota, Hawili, Alibangbang and Balinghasai. The larger plants indigenous to the site which are rarely seen in some other regions are Kalantas tree, Tindalo, Almaciga and Kamagong. The Park also harbors the endangered Jade vine.

The Park is the habitat of the endemic Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis), which is one of the most seriously endangered large mammals. Because of the endangered Tamaraw, the Park was initially established as "game refuge and bird sanctuary". The Park has been declared as an ASEAN Heritage site. Other forms of wildlife can also be found in the Park like the Phil. Deer, Wild Pig and Mindoro Cloud Rat as well as a number of bird species which are endemic to the island such as Mindoro Imperial Pigeon, Mindoro Scops Owl, Black-hooped Coucal, Scarlet-collared Flowerpecker and Heart Pigeon.

Mount Iglit-Baco National Park covers large areas of the central part of the island of Mindoro on the Philippines. It is situated near Mt. Baco (2,488 m a.s.l.) and Mt. Iglit, the latter reaching 2,364 m a.s.l. Unfortunately, the island is among the most deforested parts of the archipelago. Less than 3% of primary forests have been preserved there. Remnants of lowland rain, mountain and cloud forests with critically threatened endemic animal species are protected in the national park.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

  • 1. Republic Act No. 1086 (1954)
  • amends Commonwealth Act No. 73 and provides for a more rigid enforcement of the prohibition against the killing and/or hunting of tamaraw by increasing the penalty for violation of Act 73 to imprisonment of not less than nor more than 6 months, or fine of not less than P600.00 but not more than P1,000.00, or both at the discretion of the Court
  • 2. Administrative Order (1961)
  • establishes Mt. Iglit, a tamaraw reserve, as Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary, and as such, resource exploitation in the area is not allowed
  • 3. Republic Act 7586 (1992)
  • provides for the establishment and management of National Integrated System (NIPAS), defining its scope and coverage and for other purposes;
  • declares that all areas set aside as national parks, sanctuaries, etc. by virtue of previous proclamations, orders, laws, issuances shall be considered as initial components of the System
  • prohibits, among others, the hunting, destroying, disturbing or mere possessing of any plants or animals or products derived therefrom without a permit from the Protected Area Management Board;
  • violation is subject to a fine of not less than P5,000.00 nor more than P500,000.00, or imprisonment of not less than 1 year nor more than 6 years, or both as determined by the Court
  • Mts. Iglit-Baco, F.B. Harrison and Mt. Calavite are considered as initial components of the NIPAS
  • 4. Executive Order No. 247 (1995)
  • prescribes guidelines and establishes a regulatory framework for the prospecting (collection, research and use) of biological and genetic resources, their by-products and derivatives, for scientific and commercial purposes, and other purposes;
  • requires collectors/researchers to obtain Prior Informed Consent (PIC) from the concerned body, LGU, local community (Indigenous people/indigenous cultural communities) and/or private owners with rights/management jurisdiction over the area where bioprospecting will take place, and to enter into a research agreement with the Philippine Government agency concerned before any bioprospecting can be allowed, among other requirements;

Violation of the provisions of EO 247 shall be subject to criminal prosecution as may be proper under existing laws, as well as revocation of the agreement, confiscation of specimens collected in favor of the Philippine Government, imposition of perpetual ban on prospecting of biological and genetic resources in the country, & publication of violation committed in national and international media, among others.

From its inception to date, several agencies have handled the implementation of the Project. These agencies included the Presidential Assistance for the National Minorities (PANAMIN, 1979-1983); Office of the Muslim Affairs and Cultural Communities (OMACC, 1984); Ministry of Agriculture and Food (MAF, 1985-86); Central Office of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in collaboration with the Conservation and Resource Management Foundation, Inc. (DENR & CRMFI, 1987-89); DENR-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB, 1990-1997) with the assistance of the University of the Philippines Foundation, Inc. (UPLBFI) in 1990-93 & 1995; and, DENR-Region IV in 1998. In 1999, the management and supervision of the Project was again placed under PAWB. The Bureau continues to implement the TCP to date (2001).

Under the Wild Population and Habitat Management component, scope of activities include protection of the Tamaraw and its habitats in Mts. Iglit-Baco National Park (MIBNP) and Aruyan-Sablayan Tamaraw reservation; manning of entry/exit points to/from MIBNP; Tamaraw population study and biodiversity monitoring. Future activities will include habitat restoration and expansion of protection and research activities by covering other important areas maintaining Tamaraw.

B. mindorensis is classified as critically endangered (Criteria: C1) by the IUCN (2002), an upgraded listing from the 1996 listing of endangered.  The tamaraw is listed on CITES Appendix I (CITES, 2003).  In 1900 there were an estimated 10,000 tamaraw on Mindoro, 120 in 1975, 370 in 1987 (Petocz, 1989, in Corbet and Hill, 1992).   Boubalos (Greek) a buffalo. Mindoro is an island in the Philippines; -ensis (Latin) suffix meaning belonging to, the tamaraw is restricted to to this island (see distribution for more information).

Comparison with other similar properties

There is no comparison with other sites in the Philippines or the rest of the world, in that the Tamaraw is endemic only to the island of Mindoro, Philippines and nowhere else.