Historical Relics in Pyongyang
Korean Cultural Relics Publishing House
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Pyongyang, the cradle of the Korean nation, has a great number of sites of all the primitive ages; Paleolithic cave sites including Komunmoru Site (upper Paleolithic Age), sites of Neolithic Age, sites of Bronze Age, etc., and it has prospered as the political, economical, military and cultural center throughout the whole period of history. The city has been the capital of Ancient Korea for nearly 3000 years as the center of Taedonggang Civilization, which is representative of ancient civilization flourished 5000 years ago, and also of Koguryo from 427 till 668. During the period of Koryo Dynasty it was designated as the secondary capital, and continued to be the major city in the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula during the Li Dynasty as well. Hence, numerous sites during the Ancient Korea are found in and around the city; the Tomb of King Tangun (founder king of the Ancient Korea), castle sites such as Hwangdae Castle and Chongamdong Earthen Castle, village sites such as Namgyong Site. and Pyodae Site, and dolmens. Pyongyang abounds in the sites of Koguryo period as well. Koguryo moved its seat of power from Kuknae Castle (Jian, China) to the area in and around Mt. Taesong with Anhak Palace as its center, and again to the area of the present part of the city between the rivers Taedong and Pothong. This area was encircled by a large-sc aled castle and remained as the capital until 668. There still remain the ruins of Anhak Palace and parts of Mt. Taesong Fortress as the capital relics, and the defensive works of Jangan Fortress (the first urban fortress built in Korea) in the city. Jangan Fortress has been utilized by the later dynasties without any modification to its structure or purpose, and there are still the gates and other parts of the fortress such as Taedong Gate, Pothong Gate, Ulmil Pavilion and Ryongwang Pavilion. And in the heart of the city there remain Sungryong Hall and Sungin Hall and other temples, Confucian buildings, the five-storied octagonal pagoda in Yongmyong Temple and other numerous stone buildings.