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Maulbronn Monastery Complex

Maulbronn Monastery Complex

Founded in 1147, the Cistercian Maulbronn Monastery is considered the most complete and best-preserved medieval monastic complex north of the Alps. Surrounded by fortified walls, the main buildings were constructed between the 12th and 16th centuries. The monastery's church, mainly in Transitional Gothic style, had a major influence in the spread of Gothic architecture over much of northern and central Europe. The water-management system at Maulbronn, with its elaborate network of drains, irrigation canals and reservoirs, is of exceptional interest.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Monastère de Maulbronn

Fondée en 1147, l'abbaye cistercienne de Maulbronn est l'ensemble monastique médiéval le plus complet et le mieux préservé au nord des Alpes. Entourés d'un mur d'enceinte, les principaux bâtiments furent construits du XIIe au XVIe siècle. Le monastère, en grande partie construit à la charnière des styles roman et gothique, a eu une influence déterminante sur la diffusion de l'architecture gothique dans le centre et le nord de l'Europe. En outre, le monastère a conservé un remarquable système de gestion hydraulique par canaux et réservoirs.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

دير ماولبرون

تأسّس الدير التابع للرهبنة السيسترسية في ماولبرون في العام 1147 وهو المجموعة الرهبانية الأكمل والأكثر صوناً في شمال الألب التي تعود إلى القرون الوسطى. يحيط به جدار يحمي الحرم وقد شيّدت مبانيه الأساسية بين القرنين الثاني عشر والسادس عشر. يتميّز الدير بأنه بُني في جزء كبير منه استناداً الى الطرازَين الروماني والقوطي وقد كان له تأثير حاسم في نشر الهندسة المعمارية القوطية في وسط أوروبا وشمالها. إضافة إلى ذلك، حافظ الدير على نظام مميّز للإدارة المائية عبر القنوات والحاويات.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

莫尔布龙修道院

建于1147年的西多会(Cistercian)莫尔布龙修道院,是阿尔卑斯山脉以北地区最完整和保存最好的中世纪修道院。整个修道院周围有防御墙环绕,主建筑建于公元12至14世纪,该修道院教堂是哥特式过渡时期风格,对于哥特式建筑在北欧和中欧的兴起有着重要影响。莫尔布龙修道院的水资源管理系统非常独特,堪称一绝,包括了复杂的排水网络、灌溉运河和水库。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Монастырский комплекс Маульбронн

Цистерцианский монастырь Маульбронн, основанный в 1147 г., считается наиболее полным и лучше всего сохранившимся средневековым монастырским комплексом к северу от Альп. Находящиеся в окружении крепостных стен основные здания комплекса были построены в XII-XVI вв. Церковь монастыря в смешанном романско-готическом стиле оказала существенное влияние на распространение архитектуры готики на большей части Северной и Центральной Европы. Особый интерес представляет Система обводнения Маульбронна со сложной сетью дренажей, ирригационных каналов и бассейнов.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Monasterio de Maulbronn

Fundada en 1147, la abadía cisterciense de Maulbronn es el conjunto monástico medieval más completo y mejor preservado al norte de los Alpes. Construidos entre los siglos XII y XIV, sus edificios principales se hallan dentro de un recinto fortificado. El monasterio fue construido en la época de transición del románico al gótico y desempeñó un importante papel en la propagación de la arquitectura de este último estilo en el centro y el norte de Europa. Además, la abadía ha conservado su excepcional sistema de abastecimiento de agua mediante canales y embalses.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

マウルブロンの修道院群

source: NFUAJ

Kloostercomplex Maulbronn

Het klooster Maulbronn werd in 1147 gesticht en wordt beschouwd als het meest complete en best bewaarde kloostercomplex ten noorden van de Alpen. Het wordt omringd door versterkte muren en de belangrijkste gebouwen van het complex zijn gebouwd tussen de 12e en 16e eeuw. De kloosterkerk had een grote invloed op de verspreiding van de gotische architectuur over een groot deel van Noord en Centraal-Europa. De kerk is een typisch voorbeeld van de eerste generatie cisterciënzer architectuur. Het watermanagementsysteem van Maulbronn is - met zijn uitgebreide netwerk van afvoerkanalen, irrigatiekanalen en reservoirs - van uitzonderlijk belang.

Source: unesco.nl

Maulbronn Monastery Complex (Germany) © Silvan Rehfeld
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Founded in 1147, the Cistercian Maulbronn Monastery located in southern Germany is considered the most complete and best preserved medieval monastic complex north of the Alps. The property is set within the Salzach river valley with its surrounding hills, and comprises several areal as well as numerous linear component parts, most related to a water-management system.

The architectural ensemble of the monastery reflects developments within the Cistercian order between the 12th and 16th centuries, and also the effect of secularization and conversion to Protestant use. It is clearly defined and separated from the town by its fortified walls and its location on the outskirts of the town. The church is typical of first-generation Cistercian architecture: a two-storey Romanesque nave and a low chevet leading to a transept with three rectangular chapels opening off each arm. The monastery´s church, mainly in transitional Gothic style, had a major influence in the spread of Gothic architecture over much of northern and central Europe. The church is part of a complex of buildings arranged around a cloister. The monastery outbuildings are mostly from the 16th century and later, although they often incorporate substantial remnants from medieval buildings. The property also includes several post-monastic buildings.

The Cistercian Order was notable for its innovations in the field of hydraulic engineering, and this is admirably illustrated in the Maulbronn Monastery Complex. There is an elaborate system of reservoirs, irrigation canals and drains located along the river valley and in the surrounding hills, used to provide water for the community, fish farming and irrigation of extensive agricultural holdings. Despite the changes in the 19th century, with the drainage of several of the reservoirs, and also the expansion of the town of Maulbronn, the water management system is still one of the most extensive and best-preserved Cistercian water systems.

Criterion (ii): The construction of the transitional Romanesque-Gothic church at Maulbronn was of fundamental importance in the dissemination of Gothic architecture over much of northern and central Europe.

Criterion (iv): The Maulbronn Complex is the most complete survival of a Cistercian monastic establishment in Europe, in particular because of the survival of its extensive water-management system of reservoirs, irrigation canals and drains.

Integrity

The basic medieval layout and structure of the central monastery complex, which is typical of the Cistercian tradition, is virtually complete. There are also extensive preserved remains of the water management system. The property is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the attributes and processes which convey its significance.

The buffer zone includes the immediate setting of the property, and other attributes that are functionally important as a support to the property and its protection and contributes to strengthen the property’s integrity.

Authenticity

The topographic features around the monastery have been preserved almost intact, its development from the 12th to the 17th century can be traced, and the whole complex is in an excellent state of conservation. In view of the monastery's long and complex history, its present appearance is an amalgam of many styles and periods. The 19th century secularization and conversion to a Protestant seminary resulted in some fundamental changes to certain buildings. However, the restoration work in the 19th and 20th centuries has been impeccable, and as a result the whole complex has a very high degree of authenticity. The preserved water management system complements the authenticity of the monastic complex.

Protection and management requirements

The laws and regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg guarantee the consistent protection of Maulbronn Monastery Complex. The property is protected under Sections 28 and 12 of the Monument Protection Act Baden-Württemberg (Gesetz zum Schutz der Kulturdenkmale) as amended as well as the Town and Country Planning Code (Bundesrepublik Deutschland Baugesetzbuch) as amended.

The buffer zone is covered by Sections 2(3) and 15(3) of the Monument Protection Act Baden-Württemberg, which requires approval of any alterations to its character. The water management system is protected by the same Act, under Sections 2(1) and 2(2), and also by the Water Protection Act Baden-Württemberg (Gesetz zur Ordnung des Wasserhaushalts), last amended, the Forest Act Baden-Württemberg (Landeswaldgesetz) as amended and the Nature Protection Act Baden-Württemberg (Gesetz des Landes Baden-Württemberg zum Schutz der Natur und zur Pflege der Landschaft) as amended.

Some 90% of the monastery is in public ownership by the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg and Town of Maulbronn. The owners of private properties (including those within the area of the historic water management system) must seek approval for any work that they wish to carry out. The Stuttgart Regional Commissioner's Office is the steering and legal authority concerning construction planning and regulation as well as the protection of nature and monuments. A Monastery Advisory Committee (Klosterbeirat) was established prior to the inscription on the World Heritage List and this continues to operate. An annual work / action plan including a comprehensive, integrated monitoring system as well as an effective education and awareness programme is in place. Maulbronn Monastery Complex is an integral part of the regional and local tourism policy.  A conceptual landscape document has been developed for the preservation, maintenance, and development of the buffer zone (Landschaftsplanerische Gesamtperspektive Kloster-landschaft Maulbronn 2012).

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