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Quanzhou: Emporium of the World in Song-Yuan China

Quanzhou: Emporium of the World in Song-Yuan China
The serial site of Quanzhou illustrates the city’s vibrancy as a maritime emporium during the Song and Yuan periods (10th - 14th centuries AD) and its interconnection with the Chinese hinterland. Quanzhou thrived during a highly significant period for maritime trade in Asia. The site encompasses religious buildings, including the 11th century AD Qingjing Mosque, one of the earliest Islamic edifices in China, Islamic tombs, and a wide range of archaeological remains: administrative buildings, stone docks that were important for commerce and defence, sites of ceramic and iron production, elements of the city’s transportation network, ancient bridges, pagodas, and inscriptions. Known as Zayton in Arabic and western texts of the 10th to 14th centuries AD.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Quanzhou : emporium mondial de la Chine des Song et des Yuan

Le site en série de Quanzhou illustre le dynamisme de la ville en tant qu’emporium maritime pendant les périodes Song et Yuan (Xe-XIVe siècles de notre ère) et ses interconnexions avec l’arrière-pays chinois. Quanzhou a prospéré pendant une période très importante pour le commerce maritime en Asie. Le site comprend des édifices religieux, notamment la mosquée Qingjing, du XIe siècle, l’un des premiers édifices islamiques de Chine, des tombes islamiques et un large éventail de vestiges archéologiques : bâtiments administratifs, quais en pierre qui étaient importants pour le commerce et la défense, sites de production de céramique et de fer, éléments du réseau de transport de la ville, ponts anciens, pagodes et inscriptions. La ville était connue sous le nom de Zayton dans des textes arabes et occidentaux du Xe au XIVe siècle de notre ère.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

تشوانتشو: مركز العالم التجاري في سونغ تشوان بالصين

يجسّد الموقع المتسلسل لمدينة تشانتشو الحيوية التي كانت تنعم بها المدينة كمركزٍ تجاريّ بحريّ خلال فترتَي حكم سُلالَتي سونغ ويوان بين القرنين العاشر والرابع عشر بعد الميلاد، فضلاً عن ضروب التواصل والترابط بين المدينة وبين الأراضي الصينيّة الداخلية النائية. وازدهرت مدينة تشانتشو خلال مرحلة بالغة الأهميّة على صعيد التجارة البحريّة في آسيا. ويحتضن الموقع جملةً من الصروح الدينيّة على غرار مسجد تشينغ جينغ (مسجد الأصحاب) الذي يعود تاريخه إلى القرن الحادي عشر وهو واحد من أقدم الصروح الإسلامية في الصين، ناهيك عن المقابر الإسلامية، وطيف واسع من البقايا الأثرية مثل المباني الإدارية، وأرصفة الموانئ الحجريّة الهامّة لأغراض التجارة والدفاع، ومواقع إنتاج السيراميك والحديد، وعناصر من شبكة النقل في المدينة، والجسور القديمة، والمعابد، والنقوش. كانت المدينة تُعرف باسم "زيتون" في النصوص العربية والغربية التي تعود إلى الفترة الممتدة من القرن العاشر إلى القرن الرابع عشر الميلادي.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

泉州:宋元中国的世界海洋商贸中心

该遗址群体现了泉州在宋元时期(公元10-14世纪)作为世界海洋商贸中心的活力,及其与中国腹地的紧密联系。泉州在亚洲海运贸易的这个重要时期蓬勃发展。遗产地包括多座宗教建筑,如始建于公元11世纪的清净寺(中国最早的伊斯兰建筑之一)、伊斯兰教圣墓,以及大量考古遗迹,如行政建筑、具有重要商贸和防御意义的石码头、制瓷和冶铁生产遗址、城市交通网道的构成元素、古桥、宝塔和碑文。在公元10-14世纪的阿拉伯和西方文献中,泉州被称为刺桐。该遗产地还包括一座保留了部分原貌的元代寺庙,以及世界上仅存的摩尼石像。摩尼是摩尼教(又称琐罗亚斯德教)的创始人,该教约于公元6-7世纪传入中国。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Цюаньчжоу: мировой центр торговли в Китае эпохи династий Сун-Юань
Серийный объект Цюаньчжоу иллюстрирует динамику города как морского центра торговли в периоды Сун и Юань (X-XIV вв. н. э.) и его взаимосвязь с внутренними районами Китая. Цюаньчжоу процветал в весьма значительный период для морской торговли в Азии. На территории объекта расположены религиозные здания, в том числе мечеть Цинцзин XI века, одна из самых ранних исламских построек в Китае, исламские гробницы и широкий спектр археологических памятников: административные здания, каменные доки, имевшие важное значение для торговли и обороны, места производства керамики и железа, элементы транспортной сети города, древние мосты, пагоды и надписи. Цюаньчжоу был ранее известен как Зайтон в арабских и западных текстах Х-XIV веков.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Quanzhou, emporio mundial de la China de los Song y los Yuan

Los componentes de este sitio ilustran la vitalidad de la ciudad de Quanzhou como emporio marítimo en la época de las dinastías Song y Yuan (siglos X a XIV de nuestra era), y también como punto de conexión con la China continental. Conocida con el nombre de Zayton en los textos árabes y europeos de los siglos X a XIV, Quanzhou posee antiguos edificios religiosos entre los que figura la mezquita de Qingjing (siglo XI), una de las primeras construcciones de culto musulmán de toda China. También cuenta con tumbas islámicas y con un vasto conjunto de vestigios arqueológicos de todo tipo: edificios administrativos, muelles y embarcaderos de piedra importantes para el comercio y la defensa, elementos de la red local de transportes y talleres de cerámica y metalurgia, así como inscripciones, pagodas y puentes antiguos.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

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Interior of Dacheng Palace Hall © Quanzhou maritime Silk Road World heritage Nomination Center
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Located on the southeast coast of China, the serial property Quanzhou: Emporium of the World in Song–Yuan China reflects in an exceptional manner the spatial structure that combined production, transportation and marketing and the key institutional, social and cultural factors that contributed to the spectacular rise and prosperity of Quanzhou as a maritime hub of the East and South-east Asia trade network during the 10th – 14th centuries AD. The Song-Yuan Quanzhou emporium system was centred and powered by the city located at the junction of river and sea, with oceans to the south-east that connected it with the world, with mountains to the far north-west that provided for production, and with a water-land transportation network that joined them all together.

The component parts and contributing elements of the property include sites of administrative buildings and structures, religious buildings and statues, cultural memorial sites and monuments, production sites of ceramics and iron, as well as a transportation network formed of bridges, docks and pagodas that guided the voyagers. They comprehensively reflect the distinguishing maritime territorial, socio-cultural and trade structures of Song-Yuan Quanzhou.

Criterion (iv): Quanzhou, Emporium of the World in Song–Yuan China outstandingly illustrates, through its component parts, the territorial integrated structure and the key institutional, transportation, production, marketing and socio-cultural factors that turned it into a global-level emporium and key commercial hub during a highly prosperous stage of Asia's maritime trade in the 10th - 14th centuries AD. The property demonstrates Quanzhou’s great contributions to the economic and cultural development of East and South-east Asia.

Integrity

The serial property includes the necessary components and attributes that reflect Quanzhou as a premier maritime emporium of the world of the 10th - 14th centuries AD. The component parts and contributing elements maintain close functional, social, cultural and spatial links with each other, altogether illustrating the integrated territorial system and key facets and factors of Quanzhou's maritime trade system in the Song and Yuan periods. The immediate setting of the property, important views and other supporting areas or attributes, are all included in the buffer zone; areas sensitive to visual impacts and background environments demonstrating overall association with the serial property are all contained in demarcated wider setting areas and placed under effective protection. Urban development pressures, impacts from climate change, natural threats, and tourism pressures appear under effective control, through a set of protective and management measures.

Authenticity

The series as a whole, comprised of its component parts and contributing elements, credibly conveys the overall territorial layout, functions of the historical trade system, historical social structure, and historical chronological information of Quanzhou as a global maritime emporium in the Song and Yuan periods. Surviving original locations; information of historical functions that can be clearly recognized and understood; historical information of forms, materials, processes and traditional maintenance mechanisms and technical systems reflected in physical remains and their historical records, as well as surviving beliefs and cultural traditions that these monuments and sites carry; all testify to a high degree of authenticity and credibility of the component parts. The physical evidence can be confirmed by a wealth of historical documentation and Chinese and international research results.

Protection and management requirements

All the component parts of the serial property of Quanzhou are subject to the protection of relevant laws and regulations at the national and provincial level (Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics and its Implementation Regulations and the Regulations of Fujian Province on the Protection and Management of Cultural Property). They are all owned by the state and granted with often multiple protective designations as per laws and regulations governing Famous Historical and Cultural Cities, religious affairs, marine affairs, and Scenic Areas. Traditional maintenance and conservation mechanisms also play an active role in this regard. For protection and management effectiveness, the buffer zone and the wider setting have been incorporated into the property's protection and management system and are covered by the Management Plan for the Serial Property of Quanzhou, prepared and implemented, and the Rules of Fujian Province for the Protection and Management of Historic Monuments and Sites of Ancient Quanzhou (Zayton), as revised.

The property's management system is designed following China's administrative mechanism for cultural heritage and incorporated into the four-level administrative framework at national, provincial, city/county, and property levels. It is based on the principles of responsibilities designated at different levels, localized administration, and active community participation. A coordinated management system at the municipal level integrates management measures and implementation plans for each component part. A management working group meets quarterly and guarantees overall coordination. Management entities provide sufficient financial, human and technical guarantees and enable continuous and proper conservation of the authenticity and integrity of the serial property as a whole and each of its component parts. A long-term protection and management strategy, indicating specific requirements, has been prepared for the series and its progressive implementation is crucial for the overall management effectiveness.