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World Heritage Convention

Decision 44 COM 7B.127
Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur (Egypt) (C 86)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7B.45 adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Commends the State Party on the progress made in relation to capacity building and compliance with the requirements and processes of the World Heritage Convention and Operational Guidelines, the improved state of conservation of Saqqara including continued archaeological research, excavations and discoveries, which underscore the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, and the comprehensive work undertaken by the Egyptian authorities to open new museums;
  4. Notes the findings and recommendations of the 2021 UNESCO Advisory mission and requests the State Party to implement the recommendations of the mission report, including the preparation of a unified and comprehensive Management Plan for the property;
  5. Also notes with concern that, works are proceeding on the Ring Road project through the Giza Plateau, and reiterates its request to the State Party to review the reasons and necessity for the project, and to complete necessary studies so that alternatives can be fully considered, and further notes strong concern at the potential impact of any solution outside a tunnel;
  6. Notes furthermore the previous Committee Decision that any project should only progress once all requested technical reports and subsequent Heritage Impact Assessments (HIAs) have been positively reviewed by the Advisory Bodies and appropriate mitigation measures and procedures for monitoring have been agreed, and reiterates its previous request to the State Party to:
    1. Complete a comprehensive archaeological assessment, incorporating results from remote sensing,
    2. Ensure that, following the review by the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies, the final comprehensive ‘archaeological assessment report’ and the previous technical reports on traffic management and design details, inform the preparation of the engineering designs for the tunnel project,
    3. Finalize the HIA for the project, following the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties;
  7. Expresses regret that the Giza Pyramids Plateau Development Project has been completed without referral to the World Heritage Centre in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, and prior to consideration of the potential buffer zone for the Giza component of the property, but acknowledges that the project may improve protection of the property and visitor experiences;
  8. Also reiterates its previous request to the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, as soon as possible and in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, a detailed document providing comprehensive information about the proposed Pyramids Security Project;
  9. Further reiterates its previous request to the State Party to further strengthen the protection and management of the property, with particular regard to its Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (SOUV), and by reviewing its boundaries, defining a buffer zone and submitting a Minor Boundary Modification request, in line with Paragraphs 163-164 of the Operational Guidelines;
  10. Also requests the State Party to consult the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS regarding any proposed modification of boundaries, for both the property and the buffer zone, which should also have regard to the RSOUV, and to submit the above-mentioned Minor Boundary Modification request;
  11. Takes note with satisfaction that the State Party would welcome a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission to the property as soon as possible to evaluate the property’s state of conservation and to review the ongoing and planned projects, including road projects, and assess how they may affect the property’s OUV, having particular regard to:
    1. The Pyramids Security Project,
    2. The proposed Ring Road project through the Giza Plateau,
    3. The Giza component of the property, and the impact of increasing urban pressure in Cairo,
    4. The appropriate boundary and buffer zone for the Giza component of the property,

      and further requests the State Party to provide the relevant documentation on all planned and ongoing projects, including a detailed HIA for each project, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies prior to the mission;
  12. Welcomes the intention of the State Party to consider establishing a unit focused on preparing HIAs and encourages the State Party to build upon the 2019 and 2021 HIA workshops in the framework of the capacity building initiatives that the World Heritage Centre is implementing with the support of projects funded by Netherlands Funds in Trust and the Government of France;
  13. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session.
Decisions adopted at the 44th extended session of the World Heritage Committee
Context of Decision