Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna

Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna

Ravenna was the seat of the Roman Empire in the 5th century and then of Byzantine Italy until the 8th century. It has a unique collection of early Christian mosaics and monuments. All eight buildings – the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, the Neonian Baptistery, the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, the Arian Baptistery, the Archiepiscopal Chapel, the Mausoleum of Theodoric, the Church of San Vitale and the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe – were constructed in the 5th and 6th centuries. They show great artistic skill, including a wonderful blend of Graeco-Roman tradition, Christian iconography and oriental and Western styles.

Monuments paléochrétiens de Ravenne

Capitale de l'Empire romain au Ve siècle, puis de l'Italie byzantine jusqu'au VIIIe siècle, Ravenne possède un ensemble de mosaïques et de monuments paléochrétiens unique au monde. Ces huit bâtiments – mausolée de Galla Placidia, baptistère néonien, basilique Sant' Apollinare Nuovo, baptistère des Ariens, chapelle de l'archevêché, mausolée de Théodoric, église San Vitale, basilique Sant' Apollinare in Classe – ont été construits aux Ve et VIe siècles. Ils témoignent tous d'une grande maîtrise artistique qui associe merveilleusement la tradition gréco-romaine, l'iconographie chrétienne et des styles d'Orient et d'Occident.

نصب عائدة إلى المسيحيين الأوائل في رافينا

كانت رافينا عاصمة الامبراطورية الرومانية في القرن الخامس ثم عاصمة إيطاليا البيزنطية حتى القرن الثامن، وهي تملك مجموعة فريدة من نوعها في العالم من الفسيفساء والنصب العائدة إلى المسيحيين الأوائل. وقد بنيت هذه الأبنية الثمانية في القرنين الخامس والسادس – ضريح غالاّ بلاتشيديا ، وبيت العماد النيوني، وبازيليك سانت أبولينار نووفو ، وبيت العمال للآريين، وكابيلا الأسقفية، وضريح ثيودوريك، وكنيسة سان فيتالي وبازيليك سانت أبولينار إن كلاسي. وتشهد كلها على براعة فنية كبيرة تجمع بصورة رائعة بين التقليد الإغريقي الروماني، والإيقونوغرافيا المسيحية وأساليب الشرق والغرب.

source: UNESCO/ERI

拉文纳早期基督教名胜

5世纪时拉文纳是罗马帝国的所在地,后来一直到8世纪它又成为拜占庭意大利的所在地。城中拥有独特的早期基督教马赛克藏品以及建筑。所有的8座建筑普拉西狄亚陵墓、尼奥尼安洗礼堂、圣阿波利纳雷诺沃基督教堂、阿里亚诺洗礼堂、大主教礼拜堂、狄奥多里克陵墓、圣维塔莱教堂,克拉塞的圣阿波利纳雷基督教堂都是在5世纪到6世纪期间所建。所有的建筑都显示出了极高的艺术水准,其中包含了希腊罗马传统、基督教的插图以及东西方风格的完美交融。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Раннехристианские памятники в городе Равенна

Равенна была столицей Западной Римской империи в V в., а позже, до VIII в., – центром владений Византии в Италии. Она имеет уникальное собрание раннехристианских мозаик и памятников. Все восемь зданий – мавзолей Галлы Плацидии, баптистерии православных и ариан, базилика Сант-Аполлинаре-Нуово, архиепископская часовня, мавзолей Теодориха, церковь Сан-Витале и базилика Сант-Аполлинаре-ин-Классе – были построены в V-VI вв. Они отличаются огромным художественным мастерством исполнения, которое основано на искусном соединении греко-римских традиций, приемов христианской иконописи и восточных и западных стилей.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monumentos paleocristianos de Rávena

Capital del imperio romano en el siglo V y de la Italia bizantina entre los siglos VI y VIII, Rávena posee una excepcional colección de mosaicos y un conjunto de ocho monumentos paleocristianos de los siglos V y VI sin parangón en el mundo. Estos monumentos –mausoleo de Gala Placidia, baptisterio neoniano, basílica de San Apolinar Nuovo, baptisterio arriano, capilla arzobispal, mausoleo de Teodorico, iglesia de San Vital y basílica de San Apolinar in Classe– muestran la gran maestría artística de sus creadores, que supieron fusionar maravillosamente la tradición arquitectónica grecorromana, la iconografía cristiana y diferentes estilos orientales y occidentales.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ラヴェンナの初期キリスト教建築物群
イタリア北部のエミーリア・ロマーニャ地方の都市。5世紀初頭から西ローマ皇帝・ゲルマン王・ビザンチン皇帝によって相次いで統治され、この3時代に非常な繁栄を遂げた。ガルラ・プラッチーディア廟堂、テオドリコ廟堂、正統派洗礼堂、アリウス派洗礼堂、サン・ヴィターレ聖堂その他の初期キリスト教・初期ビザンチンの建築、モザイクなどが多く残っている。

source: NFUAJ

Vroegchristelijke monumenten van Ravenna

Ravenna was de zetel van het Romeinse Rijk in de 5e eeuw en vervolgens van het Byzantijnse Italië tot de 8e eeuw. Het heeft een unieke verzameling van vroegchristelijke mozaïeken en monumenten. Alle acht gebouwen die bij het erfgoed behoren – het Mausoleum van Galla Placidia, de doopkapel van Neon, de Basiliek van Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, de Ariaanse doopkapel, de Aartsbisschoppelijke kapel, het Mausoleum van Theodorik, de kerk van San Vitale en de Basiliek van Sant'Apollinare in Classe – werden gebouwd in de 5e en 6e eeuw. Ze tonen grote artistieke vaardigheden, waaronder een prachtige mix van Grieks-Romeinse cultuur, christelijke iconografie en oosterse en westerse stijlen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna (Italy) © Aneta Ribarska
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The serial property Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna in north-east Italy consists of eight monuments, namely the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, the Neonian Baptistery, the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, the Arian Baptistery, the Archiepiscopal Chapel, the Mausoleum of Theodoric, the Church of San Vitale and the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, built between the 5th and 6th centuries AD. These religious monuments, decorated with precious marble, stuccos and mosaics, reflect the major historical, political and religious events that took place in Ravenna, which became the capital of the Western Roman Empire in 402 AD, and remained prominent first Ostrogothic and then Byzantine capital in Italy through the fifth and sixth centuries.

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, small but lavishly decorated in the inside with inspiring mosaics against a dark blue background, reflects the Western Roman architectural tradition. The Neonian Baptistery, ornate with its inlaid marble, stuccos and multi-coloured mosaics in the cupola, is the finest and most complete surviving example of an Early Christian baptistery. From the peak of the Goths’ reign, the Arian Baptistery preserves mosaics showing the baptism of Christ and iconographic details that reflect principles of the Arian faith. The Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo was also built during the reign of Theodoric as a Palatine chapel, with mosaics in traditional Roman style that also show a strong Byzantine influence. The Mausoleum of Theodoric is a unique and singular architectural work, constructed out of large blocks of Istrian stone around a central space, and is the only surviving example of a tomb of a barbarian king of this period. The Archbishop’s Chapel, on the other hand, is the only orthodox monument built during Theodoric’s reign. The Basilica of San Vitale, from the time of Justinian, is one of the highest creations of Byzantine architecture in Italy, and combines elements from both the Western and Eastern traditions. Lastly, five kilometres from Ravenna we find the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare in Classe, an imposing building with its impressive forms, cylindrical bell tower, spacious interiors and rich marbles and mosaics.

The Early Christian buildings of Ravenna are unique testimonies of the artistic contacts and developments in a highly significant period of the cultural development in Europe. They constitute an epitome of religious and funerary art and architecture during the 5th and 6th centuries AD. The mosaics are among the best surviving examples of this form of art in Europe and have added significance due to the blending of western and eastern motifs and techniques.

 

Criterion (i): The Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna are of outstanding significance by virtue of the supreme artistry of the mosaic art they contain.

Criterion (ii): The Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna are without parallel because of the crucial evidence they provide of artistic and religious relationships and contacts at an important period of European cultural history. The mosaics are among the best surviving examples of this form of art in Europe and have an increased significance due to the blending of western and eastern motifs and techniques

Criterion (iii): The Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna show great artistic skill, including a wonderful blend of Greco-Roman tradition, Christian iconography and oriental and western styles typifying the culture of the later Roman Empire.

Criterion (iv): The property constitutes an epitome of religious and funerary art and architecture during the 6th century AD.

 

Integrity

This serial property includes all the essential elements necessary to demonstrate its Outstanding Universal Value. The group of eight monuments that form the site include the most representative examples of architectural and artistic development between the fifth and sixth centuries AD, in particular regarding mosaic art. These monuments are testimonies of the role that Ravenna played, first as capital of the Western Roman Empire, later as residence of the Ostrogoths of Theodoric and his successors, and lastly as the capital of the Byzantium Exarchate in Italy.

The major pressures on the property are subsidence, condensation damp caused mainly by tourist flow, and pollution, which are being addressed by the site managers.

 

Authenticity

The authenticity of the eight monuments that make up this site is high. All have undergone various modifications in the centuries since they were originally built, but these modifications have their own intrinsic historical value and as such do not adversely affect the overall authenticity of the property.

More recently, the monuments have undergone several restoration projects. The works, performed by the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archittetonici e Paesaggistici di Ravenna, in compliance with the principles of the 1964 Venice Charter, have permitted the monuments’ conservationuntil today.

The cultural tradition and technique of mosaics, which play an active role in the city’s cultural identity, are kept alive through a range of activities aiming to promote knowledge, training, conservation and valorisation of mosaic art.

 

Protection and management requirements

This property is subject to the Italian cultural heritage protection and conservation legislation (Legislative Decree 42/2004) which establishes specific legal protection tools for the eight monuments, and require prior authorisation from the local offices of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities for all interventions. Town planning regulations reiterate the national legislation, thereby only permitting scientific restoration projects.

The property is managed by a group of institutions, operating on different levels and with different skills. These include, in particular, the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities, which is responsible through its local offices for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage, while the Municipal Authority – Comune di Ravenna - is responsible for drafting and implementing the City’s conservation and management strategies using town planning tools and regulations for territorial activities. The other local authorities (Regional and Provincial councils) collaborate with protection, conservation and management activities, as well as cultural heritage promotion. The Municipality of Ravenna carries out particularly important coordination activities for the management of the property. The management is entrusted to a Management Committee in which all the main institutional stakeholders formally responsible are represented, including the Regional Cultural Heritage Department, the Local Office of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities – Soprintendenza - the Municipality of Ravenna and Opera di Religione of the Ravenna Diocese, the local reference body for the Catholic Church, owner of some of the monuments included in the property. The Coordination Committee is responsible for implementing the Management Plan, paying particular attention to conservation, valorisation and promotion activities for monuments.

Priority actions in the Management Plan include a specific action plan for mosaic conservation, including studies and monitoring of the state of the mosaics in the property conducted by the School of Restoration; an action plan dedicated to the transfer of knowledge and training on mosaic art in schools, from primary schools through to the Fine Art Academy; and a communication action plan implemented using innovative technological tools.