Built during the second half of the 16th century by the Emperor Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri (the City of Victory) was the capital of the Mughal Empire for only some 10 years. The complex of monuments and temples, all in a uniform architectural style, includes one of the largest mosques in India, the Jama Masjid.
La « ville de la victoire », construite dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle par l'empereur Akbar, ne fut la capitale de l'Empire moghol que pendant une dizaine d'années. C'est un ensemble architectural homogène avec de nombreux monuments et temples, dont une des plus grandes mosquées de l'Inde, Jama Masjid.
لم تكن مدينةُ النصر التي شيّدها الإمبراطور أكبر في النصف الثاني من القرن السادس عشر عاصمةَ الإمبراطورية المغولية إلا لعشرات السنوات. وهي تشكّل مجموعةً هندسية متناسقة مع الكثير من النصب التذكارية والمعابد التي يندرج بينها مسجد جاما وهو أحد أهمّ مساجد الهند.
法塔赫布尔西格里（胜利之城），由阿克巴皇帝(Emperor Akbar)于16世纪后半期而建，它作为莫卧儿王国的首都只有约十年的历史。城中的整体建筑和寺庙都遵循统一的建筑风格，其中包括印度最大的清真寺渣墨清真寺(Jama Masjid)。
Древний город Фатехпур-Сикри
Фатехпур-Сикри (или «Город Победы»), построенный во второй половине XVI в. императором Акбаром, был столицей империи Моголов всего около 10 лет. Комплекс памятников и храмов, выполненных в едином архитектурном стиле, включает одну из крупнейших в Индии мечетей – Джама-Масджид.
Construida por el emperador Akbar en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, Fatehpur Sikri, la “ciudad de la victoria”, fue la capital del Imperio Mogol durante diez años solamente. El sitio comprende un conjunto arquitectónico homogéneo con numerosos monumentos y templos, entre los que figura la Jama Masjid, una de las mezquitas más grandes de la India.
Deze ‘Stad der Overwinning’ werd gebouwd tijdens de tweede helft van de 16e eeuw door keizer Akbar en was gedurende veertien jaar de hoofdstad van het Mogolrijk. Het monumenten- en tempelcomplex dat in een uniforme architectonische stijl is gebouwd bevat één van India’s grootste moskeeën: de Jama Masjid. Fatehpur Sikri is een buitengewoon eerbetoon aan de Mogol beschaving aan het eind van de 16e eeuw en een uniek voorbeeld van architectonische gebouwen van uiterst hoge kwaliteit uit de periode 1571 tot 1585. De vormgeving en indeling van de gebouwen had grote invloed op de ontwikkeling van de Indiase stedenbouw, met name in Shahjahanabad (Oud Delhi).
Outstanding Universal Value
Fatehpur Sikri is located in Agra District in the State of Uttar Pradesh in the North East of India. It was constructed at south-east of an artificial lake, on the slopping levels of the outcrops of the Vindhyan hill ranges. Known as the “city of victory”, it was made capital by the Mughal emperor Akbar (1556-1605 AD) and constructed between 1571 and 1573 AD. Fatehpur Sikri was the first planned city of the Mughals marked by magnificent administrative, residential and religious buildings comprised of palaces, public buildings, mosques, living areas for the court, the army, the servants of the king and an entire city. Upon moving the capital to Lahore in 1585 AD, Fatehpur Sikri remained as an area for temporary visits by the Mughal emperors.
The inscribed property covers 60.735 ha, with a buffer zone of 475.542 ha. It is bounded on three sides by a wall of 6 km, fortified by towers and pierced by 9 gates, in which a number of impressive edifices of secular and religious nature, which exhibit a fusion of prolific and versatile Indo-Islamic styles, exist. The city was originally rectangular in plan, with a grid pattern of roads and by-lanes which cut at right angles. The well defined administrative block, royal palaces and Jami Mosque are located in the centre of the city. There was an efficient drainage and water management system existing in the city. The buildings are constructed in red sandstone with little use of marble. Diwan-i-Am (the hall of public audience), encircled by a series of porticos broken up at the west by the insertion of emperor’s seat in the form of a small raised chamber separated through perforated stone screens and provided with pitched stone roof. This chamber communicates directly with imperial palace complex clustered along a vast court, at the north side of it stands a building popularly known as Diwan-i-Khas (hall of private audience) also known as ‘Jewel house’. Other monuments of exceptional quality are Panch Mahal- an extraordinary entirely columnar five storied structure disposed asymmetrically on the pattern of Persian badgir or wind-catcher, the pavilion of Turkish Sultana, Anup Talao (peerless pool), Diwan-Khana-i-Khas and Khwabgah (sleeping Chamber), palace of Jodh Bai- is the largest building of the residential complex, the interior has richly carved pillars, balconies, perforated stone windows and azure-blue ribbed roof on the north and south sides, Birbal’s house, Carvan Sarai, Haram Sara, baths, water works, stables, Hiran tower etc. The architectural style of the buildings is a beautiful amalgamation of the indigenous and Persian style.
Amongst the religious monuments at Fatehpur Sikri, Jama Masjid is the earliest constructed building on the summit of the ridge, completed in 1571-72. It incorporates the tomb of Saikh Salim Chisti, an extraordinary masterpiece of sculpted decoration completed in 1580-81 AD, further embellished under the reign of Jahangir in 1606 AD. To the south of the court is an imposing structure Buland Darwaza (Lofty gate) with a height of 40 metres, completed in 1575 AD for commemorating the victory of Gujarat in 1572 AD. It is by far the greatest monumental structure of the Akbar’s entire reign and also one of the most perfect architectural achievements in India.
Criteria (ii): The construction of Fatehpur Sikri exercised a definite influence on the evolution of Mughal town planning, namely, Shahjahanabad.
Criteria (iii): The city of Fatehpur Sikri demonstrates the most spectacular building activities which bears an exceptional testimony to the Mughal civilization at the end of 16th century AD.
Criteria (iv): The city as a whole is an unique example of architectural ensembles of very high quality constructed between 1571 and 1585 AD.
The inscribed property contains the necessary attributes that express its Outstanding Universal Value and these are in a good state of conservation. Factors that previously threatened the integrity of the property, such as mining activities, have been controlled by banning of mining in 10 km radius of Fatehpur Sikri, but will require continuous monitoring, particularly in regard to illegal blasting. The extension of the buffer zone, and the establishment of pertinent regulatory measures, is critical to control the unplanned growth of the township and the potential threat to the visual integrity of the property. Adequate planning and definition of clear guidelines for visitor use is also essential to maintain the qualities of the property, especially as it relates to the potential development of infrastructure at and nearby the property.
The authenticity of the Fatehpur Sikri has been preserved in the palaces, public buildings, mosques, living areas for the court, the army, and the servants of the king. Several repairs and conservation works have been carried out right from the British Government in India to Buland Darwaza, Royal Alms House, Hakim Hammam, Jami Masjid, Panch Mahal, Jodh Bai palace, Diwan-i-Am, Turkish Sultana’s house, Birbal’s house, mint house, treasury house etc. without changing original structures. Beside this, paintings and painted inscriptions in Jami Masjid, Shaikh Salim Chishti’s tomb, Akbar’s Khwabgah and Mariam’s house have also been chemically preserved and restored according to the original conditions. To maintain the conditions of authenticity, guidelines are needed to ensure that form and design, as well as location and setting are protected.
Requirements for protection and management
The management of Fatehpur Sikri monuments have been carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India and the legal protection of the monument and the control over the regulated area around the monument is through the various legislation like Ancient Monument and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 and Rules 1959 Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Amendment and Validation) Act 2010; which is adequate to the overall administration of the property and buffer areas. In addition, the passing of orders by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India’s orders assists the Archaeological Survey of India in protection and preservation of monuments.
An area of 10,400 sq km around the Taj Mahal is defined to protect the monument from pollution. The Supreme Court of India in December, 1996, delivered a ruling banning use of coal/coke in industries located in the Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ) and switching over to natural gas or relocating them outside the TTZ. The TTZ comprises of 40 protected monuments including three World Heritage Sites-Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri.
To prevent the entry of unauthorized persons in the tourist movement area and to avoid encroachments in the property area, a boundary wall has been constructed on the protected limits of the Palace complex. In addition to the physical delimitation, regulatory measures are needed to prevent further encroachment and impacts on the visual integrity of the property.
The sustained implementation of the Integrated Management Plan is required for the adequate protection, conservation and management of the property and its buffer zone. It is also the necessary mechanism to coordinate the actions implemented by different agencies at the central and local levels that have mandates that impact it, for example the Town and Country Planning Organization, the Agra Development Authority, the Municipal Corporation, the Public Works Department, among others. The Management Plan will need to include provisions to ensure adequate visitor management and guidelines for the potential development of additional infrastructure, which will need to be preceded in all cases by a Heritage Impact Assessment.
The fund provided by the federal government is adequate for the overall conservation, preservation and maintenance of the monuments of Fatehpur Sikri. It supports the presence of a Conservation Assistant who works under the guidance of the regional office of the Archaeological Survey of India and coordinates activities at the site.
- International World Heritage Expert Meeting on Visual Integrity 06-Mar-2013-09-Mar-2013
- Final Itinerant Workshop on the Conservation and Management of Persian, Timurid and Mogul Architecture 06-Apr-2009-12-Apr-2009