Group of Monuments at Pattadakal

Group of Monuments at Pattadakal

Pattadakal, in Karnataka, represents the high point of an eclectic art which, in the 7th and 8th centuries under the Chalukya dynasty, achieved a harmonious blend of architectural forms from northern and southern India. An impressive series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary, can be seen there. One masterpiece from the group stands out – the Temple of Virupaksha, built c. 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her husband's victory over the kings from the South.

Ensemble de monuments de Pattadakal

Pattadakal, dans l'État du Karnâtaka, illustre l'apogée d'un art éclectique qui, aux VIIe et VIIIe siècles, sous l'égide de la dynastie des Châlukya, sut réaliser une heureuse synthèse des formes architecturales du nord et du sud de l'Inde. On y trouve une imposante série de neuf temples hindouistes, ainsi qu'un sanctuaire jaïn. Dans ce groupe se détache un pur chef-d'œuvre, le temple de Virûpâksha, élevé vers 740 par la reine Lokamahadevi pour commémorer la victoire de son époux sur les souverains du Sud.

مجمّع نصب باتاداكال

تجسد مدينة باتاداكال الواقعة في ولاية قرناتاكا ذروة فنّ انتقائي عرف في القرنين السابع والثامن في عهد سلالة شالوكيا أن يحقّق توليفاً متناغماً للأشكال الهندسية في شمال الهند وجنوبها. وتتواجد في المدينة سلسلة ضخمة من المعابد الهندوسية بالإضافة إلى مزار جانيّ وتبرز في هذه المجموعة تُحفة بامتياز هي معبد فيروباكشا الذي شيّدته عام 740 الملكة لوكاماهاديفي بهدف تخليد ذكرى النصر الذي حقّقه زوجها على الحكام في الجنوب.

source: UNESCO/ERI

帕塔达卡尔建筑群

位于卡纳塔克邦的帕塔达卡尔建筑群,代表了公元7世纪至8世纪遮娄其王朝时期折衷艺术的顶峰。这些折衷艺术建筑风格把印度南北方的建筑形式综合协调。在那里可见到9座令人印象深刻的印度教庙宇和1座耆那教神殿。最为突出的维鲁巴克沙寺庙建于公元740年,是罗卡玛哈德维王后为纪念她的丈夫战胜南方的国王们而建的。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Памятники Паттадакала

Эти памятники, расположенные в штате Карнатака, представляют собой яркий пример эклектичного искусства, которое в VII-VIII вв., при династии Чалукьев, достигло гармоничного сочетания архитектурных форм, свойственных северной и южной Индии. Здесь можно увидеть группу из девяти индуистских храмов, а также джайнское святилище. Одно святилище стоит отдельно от других – это храм Вирупакши, сооруженный в 740 г. царицей Локамахадеви, в честь победы ее мужа над правителями южной Индии.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Conjunto monumental de Pattadakal

Situado en el Estado de Karnataka, el sitio de Pattadakal ilustra el apogeo del arte ecléctico que logró sintetizar armónicamente las formas arquitectónicas del norte y el sur de la India en los siglos VII y VIII, bajo la dinastía de los Châlukya. El sitio comprende un conjunto impresionante de nueve templos hinduistas y un santuario jainista. Dentro del conjunto destaca una obra maestra excepcional, el templo de Virûpâksha, que fue erigido hacia el año 740 por la reina Lokamahadevi para conmemorar la victoria de su esposo en una batalla contra los soberanos de los reinos meridionales.

source: UNESCO/ERI

パッタダカルの建造物群

source: NFUAJ

Monumentengroep van Pattadakal

In het gebied tussen de Malaprabha rivier – in de staat Karnataka – naar het noorden en een minuscuul dorpje in het zuiden is een indrukwekkende reeks van negen hindoetempels te zien, evenals een Jaïn heiligdom. Een van deze Pattadakal monumenten onderscheidt zich als meesterwerk van de anderen: de Tempel van Virupaksha, gebouwd rond 740 door koningin Lokamahadevi ter gelegenheid van de overwinning van haar echtgenoot op de koningen van het Zuiden. Pattadakal vertegenwoordigt het hoogtepunt van een eclectische kunst – in de 7e en 8e eeuw onder de Chalukya dynastie – waarin architectonische vormen uit het noorden en zuiden van India harmonieus samenkomen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Group of Monuments at Pattadakal
Long Description

Pattadakal represents the high point of an eclectic art which, in the 7th and 8th centuries under the Chalukya dynasty, achieved a harmonious blend of architectural forms from northern and southern India. An impressive series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary, can be seen there.

Three very closely located sites in the State of Karnataka provide a remarkable concentration of religious monuments dating from the great dynasty of the Chalukya (c. 543-757). There are the two successive capital cities - Aihole (ancient Aryapura), Badami, and Pattadakal, the 'City of the Crown Rubies' (Pattada Kisuvolal). The latter was, moreover, for a brief time the third capital city of the Chalukya kingdom; at the time the Pallava occupied Badami (642-55). While Aihole is traditionally considered the 'laboratory' of Chalukya architecture, with such monuments as the Temple of Ladkhan (c. 450) which antedate the dynasty's political successes during the reign of King Pulakeshin I, the city of Pattadakal illustrates the apogee of an eclectic art which, in the 7th and 8th centuries, achieved a harmonious blend of architectural forms from the north and south of India.

Situated between the Malaprabha River to the north, and a minuscule village to the south, Pattadakal possesses a sort of holy city comprised of an impressive series of eight Hindu temples dedicated to Siva. Somewhat off to the side, towards the village, is the ninth Sivaite sanctuary, the Temple of Papanatha, as well as a Jain temple. In the monumental complex of the central zone are structures whose design was strongly influenced by the architecture of northern India: the temples of Galaganatha and of Kashi Vishveshvara, which are noteworthy for their square-shaped shikharas with curved edges. They stand along with other temples of a pure Dravidian style - Sangameshvara, built between 696 and 733, and Mallikarjuna, built consecutively from 733-44. Cornices decorate the walls of these temples and the roofs are the complex, storeyed type found in southern architecture.

The unexpected and yet harmonious mixture of these styles provided the inspiration for the masterpiece of Chalukya art, the temple of Virupaksha. This Sivaite sanctuary was erected around 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate the victory in 731 of her husband, King Vikramaditya II, over the Pallava and other sovereigns of southern India. The king's admiration for the art of his conquered enemies is borne out by two inscriptions that offer proof that he brought in from the south an architect and a team of sculptors.

Prominently jutting out from the cruciform temple are three porches, a typical Chalukyan feature. They blend perfectly with the majestic three-storey tower and the walls with their overhanging cornices punctuated by narrow pilasters that separate niches filled with marvellous statuary. An overall concept dictated the choice of statues which illustrate the great themes of Siva theology and mythology.

The evocative ruins of the numerous abandoned sanctuaries within the enclosure may be reached, on the west and east sides, through two monumental gates. In the axis of the courtyard, in front of the temple, is a beautiful pavilion containing a colossal black stone statue of Siva's sacred bull, Nandi. The puja, the ritual washing of the bull, takes place there every morning. Enhanced by its relative isolation south of the principal zone, the temple of Papanatha illustrates once again the aesthetic achievement resulting from the incorporation of two different styles. Papanatha has two rooms where the faithful can worship.

On the west is the principal sanctuary, which is covered with a powerful tower in the northern style; to the east is a more modest room, whose roof is crowned with miniature reproductions of buildings in the purest Dravidian style. Experts have found in the detail of the niches, the pediments and the arcature, many contradictory architectural references. The plastic unity of this great monument, however, comes from the remarkable sculptured decoration illustrating the popular epic of the Ramayana, dedicated to Prince Rama, incarnation of Vishnu.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC