Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh

Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh

The Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh is located in central Belarus. The Radziwill dynasty, who built and kept the ensemble from the 16th century until 1939, gave birth to some of the most important personalities in European history and culture. Due to their efforts, the town of Nesvizh came to exercise great influence in the sciences, arts, crafts and architecture. The complex consists of the residential castle and the mausoleum Church of Corpus Christi with their setting. The castle has ten interconnected buildings, which developed as an architectural whole around a six-sided courtyard. The palaces and church became important prototypes marking the development of architecture throughout Central Europe and Russia.

Ensemble architectural, résidentiel et culturel de la famille Radziwill à Nesvizh

L’ensemble architectural, résidentiel et culturel de la famille Radziwill à Nesvizh se trouve en Bélarus central. De la dynastie Radziwill, qui construisit et conserva cet ensemble du XVIe siècle à 1939, sont issues certaines des plus importantes personnalités de l’histoire et de la culture de l’Europe. Grâce à leurs efforts, Nesvizh devint un lieu crucial d’influence dans les différents domaines de la culture, des sciences, des arts, de l’artisanat et de l’architecture. Cet ensemble se compose d’un palais et de l’église mausolée du Corpus Christi. Le château est constitué de dix bâtiments mitoyens, qui ont évolué comme un seul et même ensemble architectural autour d’une cour hexagonale. Les palais, ainsi que l’église du Corpus Christi, sont devenus d’importants modèles qui ont marqué le développement de l’architecture dans toute l’Europe centrale et la Russie.

المجمّع الهندسي والسكني والثقافي لعائلة رادزيفيل في نيسفيز

يقع المجمّع الهندسي والسكني والثقافي لعائلة رادزيفيل في نيسفيز، في بيلاروسيا الوسطى. ومن سلالة رادزيفيل التي بنت وحافظت على هذا المجمع العائد إلى القرن السادس عشر حتى 1939 يتحدّر بعض أهم الشخصيات في التاريخ والثقافة الأوروبية. وبفضل جهودهم، أصبحت نيسفيز مكاناً مهماً للتأثير في مجالات الثقافة المختلفة والمجالات العلمية والفنية والحرفية والهندسية. تتألف المجموعة من قصر وكنيسة جسد المسيح (كوربوس كريستي). ويتألف القصر بدوره من عشرة مبانِ مشتركة تطوّرت كمجموعة هندسية واحدة من حول فناء سداسي الشكل. وقد أصبحت القصور وكنيسة جسد المسيح (كوربوس كريستي) نماذج مهمة أثّرت على تطوّر الهندسة المعمارية في كل أوروبا الوسطى وروسيا.

source: UNESCO/ERI

涅斯维日的拉济维乌家族城堡建筑群

涅斯维日的拉济维乌家族城堡建筑群位于白俄罗斯中部,由拉济维乌王朝(the Radziwill dynasty)从16世纪开始建造,到1939年完工。拉济维乌王朝诞生了许多欧洲历史和文化领域的重要人物,由于他们的努力,涅斯维日在科学、艺术、工艺和建筑方面产生了巨大影响。建筑群包括寝宫、基督圣体教堂及相应的环境景观,宫殿内有10座相连的建筑,形成一个六边形庭院建筑体系。宫殿和基督圣体教堂这样意义非凡的建筑原型,显示了整个欧洲中部和俄罗斯的建筑发展。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Архитектурный, жилой и культурный комплекс рода Радзивиллов в городе Несвиж

Архитектурный, жилой и культурный комплекс Радзивиллов в Несвиже находится в центральной части Беларуси. Род Радзивиллов, представители которого выстроили и сохранили этот ансамбль с ХVI в. до 1939 г., известен рядом крупнейших деятелей европейской истории и культуры. Благодаря их усилиям, Несвиж оказал большое влияние на развитие науки, искусств, ремесел и архитектуры. Комплекс включает замок-резиденцию, Фарный (приходской) костел Наисвятейшего Божиего Тела и окружающие их постройки. Замок состоит из десяти взаимосвязанных зданий, которые образуют единое архитектурное целое вокруг шестигранного двора. Постройки этого замка и костел стали прототипами, оказавшими большое влияние на развитие архитектуры в этой части Европы и в России.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Conjunto arquitectónico, residencial y cultural de la familia Radziwill en Nesvizh

El conjunto arquitectónico, residencial y cultural de Nesvizh, antaño perteneciente a la familia Radziwill, se halla en el centro de Belarrús. De la familia de los Radziwill, que construyó este conjunto en el siglo XVI y lo conservó hasta 1939, proceden algunas personalidades eminentes de la historia y la cultura del Viejo Continente. Bajo su impulso, la ciudad de Nesvizh ejerció una gran influencia en las bellas artes, la artesaní­a y la arquitectura. El conjunto comprende el palacio y la iglesia del Corpus Christi, mausoleo de la familia. El primero se compone de diez edificios distintos adosados que han llegado a constituir un solo conjunto arquitectónico, dispuesto en torno a un patio hexagonal. Las mansiones que integran ese conjunto y la iglesia del Corpus Christi fueron modelos que influyeron en la arquitectura de toda Europa Central y Rusia.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ネースヴィジのラジヴィール家の建築、住居、文化的複合体
ヨーロッパの歴史と文化において重要な役割を果たし、16世紀から1939年まで存続したラジヴィール王朝。この王朝の文化が集まった都市・ネースヴィジは、特に科学や芸術、工芸、建築の分野でヨーロッパに大きな影響力を持った。遺構は、居住用の城館やキリストの聖体を祀る霊廟協会とその周辺地域から成る。城館は10の建造物で構成され、それぞれが内部で結ばれて全体が一つの建物として6面の中庭を取り囲むように設計されている。城館と教会は、中欧とロシア全域における建築の原型にもなっている。

source: NFUAJ

Architectonisch, residentieel en cultureel complex van de familie Radziwill in Nesvizh

Het architectonisch, residentieel en cultureel complex van de familie Radziwill ligt in centraal Wit-Rusland en bestaat uit het residentiële kasteel en de mausoleumkerk Corpus Christi en omgeving. De Radziwill dynastie bouwde en onderhield het gebouwencomplex van de 16e eeuw tot 1939. Dankzij de familie oefende de stad Nesvizh grote invloed uit op de wetenschap, kunst(nijverheid) en cultuur. Het kasteel heeft tien onderling verbonden gebouwen, die een architecturaal geheel vormen rondom een zeshoekige binnenplaats. Het paleis en de kerk zijn belangrijke prototypes geworden en markeren de ontwikkeling van architectuur in Centraal-Europa en Rusland.

Source: unesco.nl

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Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection
Outstanding Universal Value
Brief synthesis

The Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh in central Belarus exercised great influence in the sciences, arts, crafts and architecture of Central and Eastern Europe. The efforts of the Radziwill dynasty, which built and kept this ensemble of buildings and their associated landscape from 1583 until 1939 and which included some of the most notable personalities in European history and culture who introduced novel concepts based on a synthesis of Western traditions, led to the establishment of a new Central European school of architecture. The Radziwill family complex - and in particular the domed basilica Corpus Christi mausoleum-church represents an important stage in the development of building typology in 16th and 17th century Central European architecture.

The Radziwill family complex consists of a residential castle and the Corpus Christi mausoleum-church, along with their landscaped setting. The compact castle has ten interconnected buildings, including a palace, galleries, residence, family archive and arsenal, all of which were developed as a single architectural ensemble around a six-sided courtyard. The buildings are set within the remains of 16th century fortifications comprised of four bastions and four curtain walls in a rectangular plan, surrounded by a moat. An earthen dam with a stone bridge connects the castle to Corpus Christi Church in the adjacent urban area of Nesvizh. The ensemble of buildings, interspersed by artificial reservoirs and canals of the river Usha, is in a picturesque 100 ha landscape that includes a series of thematic parks and ponds.

Over the centuries the Radziwills supported activities in various spheres of science and culture, and also invited important cultural personalities, architects, artists and craftspersons to the small town of Nesvizh. These interactions introduced the latest architectural innovations from Southern and Western Europe and became seminal in synthesizing and transmitting these trends to Central and Eastern Europe. An architectural school emerged here that consisted of artists from Belarus, Poland, Italy, and Germany who developed sophisticated construction and building techniques. The buildings of the Radziwill family complex became important prototypes in Central Europe, and exercised considerable influence in this region.

Criterion (ii): The Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh was the cradle for the introduction of new concepts based on the synthesis of Western traditions, leading to the establishment of a new architectural school in Central Europe.

Criterion (iv): The Radziwill complex represents an important stage in the development of new a building typology and in the history of Central European architecture during the 16th and 17th centuries. In particular, this concerns Corpus Christi Church with its domed basilica typology.

Criterion (vi): The Radziwill family was particularly significant for its association with the interpretation of influences from Southern and Western Europe and the transmission of ideas within Central and Eastern Europe.

Integrity

All the elements that sustain the Outstanding Universal Value of the Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh are located within the boundaries of the 120 ha property, including the residential castle, the Corpus Christi church-mausoleum, and the landscaped parks and ponds. The property is therefore of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes that convey its significance. There is also a 292 ha buffer zone. The state of conservation of the interrelated elements is good.

Authenticity

The overall historical authenticity of the property has been maintained regarding its location and setting, form and design, and materials and substance. The territory of the castle complex and the surrounding natural landscape have largely been preserved. Drawings and maps of Nesvizh from the 16th to the 18th centuries reveal a high degree of authenticity in the design of the complex. The castle and the church-mausoleum include construction materials, structures and craft, dating from the 16th to 18th centuries. The fortifications were destroyed in the 17th century, and more recently there has been some reconstruction (e.g. the bell tower). The landscaped park, with its romantic features dating mainly from the 19th century, has suffered from neglect, though it has been subject to some clearing and replanting in recent decades. As a whole, the landscape has maintained all its essential components, especially in the immediate surroundings of the castle and the Corpus Christi Church.

The castle's Eastern Gallery was demolished and rebuilt in 2006-2010 and a heating system has been planned for the mausoleum-church, both without benefit of an overall conservation plan. Some concerns have been raised about these and other recent rehabilitation and modernization works, and in general about the balance between repair and renewal.

Protection and management requirements

The castle, the church-mausoleum and the causeway that links them are in state ownership. The church-mausoleum, which has a religious function, is managed by the Ecclesiastical Council, while the causeway is under the management of the Nesvizh Region Executive Committee. The Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh, which is a Property of National Significance, is administered by the National Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve "Nyasvizh", formed in 1996 in accordance with a Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus. In general, all activities related to the protection of the property are coordinated by the Department for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage and Restoration in the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus. The Nesvizh General Plan (2007) controls the central part of the town and insures that the scale of development and the adaptation of buildings respect the character of the historic buildings. There is a Management Commission for the property established in 2005, and a Management Plan adopted by the decision of the Methodological Council on Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Ministry of Culture in 2006, and modified in 2010. The Management Plan seeks to organize the collective work for the protection of the Nesvizh urban landscape and the visual impact of interventions on the integrity of the urban environment within the property's buffer zone. The Management Plan for the property requires revision to respond to a very significant increase in the number of visits to the property and other pressures.

Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value of the Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh over time will require revising the Management Plan to address the significant increase in visits to the property and to clearly set out approaches for conservation, restoration and renewal, in particular concerning rehabilitation and modernization works, as well as to ensure that appropriate planning measures (such as a conservation plan) are in place and adopted in order to prevent interventions that could have a negative impact on the values, authenticity and integrity of the property.