Derwent Valley Mills

Derwent Valley Mills

The Derwent Valley in central England contains a series of 18th- and 19th- century cotton mills and an industrial landscape of high historical and technological interest. The modern factory owes its origins to the mills at Cromford, where Richard Arkwright's inventions were first put into industrial-scale production. The workers' housing associated with this and the other mills remains intact and illustrate the socio-economic development of the area.

Usines de la vallée de la Derwent

La vallée de la Derwent, dans le centre de l’Angleterre, abrite plusieurs filatures de coton du XVIIIe et du XIXe siècle, ainsi qu’un paysage d’un grand intérêt historique et technologique. L’usine moderne trouve ses origines dans les filatures de Cromford, où les inventions de Richard Arkwright furent pour la première fois mises en pratique dans le cadre d’une production à l’échelle industrielle. Les logements ouvriers associés à ces fabriques sont toujours intacts et témoignent du développement socio-économique de la région.

مصانع وادي ديروينت

يحوي وادي ديروينت في قلب انكلترا عدداً من مصانع غزل القطن التي يعود تاريخها الى القرنين الثامن عشر والتاسع عشر، الى جانب منظر ذي أهمية تاريخية وتقنية كبيرة. وتعود نشأة المصنع الحديث الى مصانع الغزل في كرومفورد حيث وضعت اختراعات ريتشارد اركرايت حيز التطبيق للمرة الاولى في اطار الانتاج الصناعي. وقد تم الحفاظ على مساكن العمال التي تشهد على تطور المنطقة من الناحيتين الاجتماعية والاقتصادية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

德文特河谷工业区

德文特河河谷位于苏格兰中部,拥有18世纪至19世纪兴起的大量棉纺织工厂,是一个具有重要历史意义和科技影响力的工业景区。在克劳姆弗德有现代工厂的原型,这里是阿克莱的发明被第一次运用到工业生产规模中的地方。工厂的工人宿舍群和其他一些纺织厂仍然保存完好,见证了这个地区社会经济的发展。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Фабрики в долине реки Дервент

В долине реки Дервент в центральной Англии, где находится несколько текстильных фабрик XVIII-XIX вв., сформировался промышленный ландшафт, весьма интересный с точки зрения истории техники. Вся современная промышленность обязана своим возникновением фабрикам, расположенным близ Кромфорда, где впервые были запущены в серийное производство изобретения Ричарда Аркрайта. Жилища рабочих, связанные с этими и другими фабриками, хорошо сохранились, что иллюстрирует социально-экономическое развитие данного региона.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Fábricas del valle del Derwent

Situado en el centro de Inglaterra, el valle del Derwent alberga varias hilaturas de algodón que datan de los siglos XVIII y XIX y su paisaje industrial ofrece un gran interés histórico y tecnológico. La industria textil moderna tuvo su origen en las manufacturas de Cromford, en las que se aplicaron por primera vez las invenciones de Richard Arkwright a la producción a escala masiva. Las viviendas obreras de estas y otras manufacturas se han conservado intactas y constituyen un testimonio del desarrollo socioeconómico de la región.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ダーウェント峡谷の工場群
イギリス中部、ダーウェント渓谷に残る工場群。18~19世紀の間、繁栄した綿工場と産業景観で著名であり、工場システム誕生の地として歴史的にも、技術的にも、技術的にも重要な意義を有する地である。現存する工場は、リチャード・オークライトが発明した工場規模での綿紡績の生産工法を初めて導入した、クロムフォードの工場群が起源となっている。当時労働者が居住していた住宅や他の工場は、この地域の社会経済的発展を如実に示している。

source: NFUAJ

Derwent Valley fabrieken

De Derwent Valley in centraal Engeland bevat een reeks 18e en 19e-eeuwse katoenfabrieken en bevindt zich in een industrieel landschap van hoge historische en technologische waarde. De moderne fabriek dankt zijn oorsprong aan de molens van Richard Arkwright. Hij bouwde in 1771 een door water aangedreven spinnerij in Cromford en in 1776-77 een tweede, grotere. Met dit ‘Arkwright-systeem’ kon op industriële schaal geproduceerd worden. De vier belangrijkste industriële nederzettingen binnen de Derwent vallei benutten de Derwent rivier door het water ervan te gebruiken als aandrijving voor de katoenfabrieken. De sociale woningen die bij de katoenfabrieken hoorden, zijn nog intact en omspannen 24 kilometer van de Derwent vallei.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Derwent Valley Mills
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Derwent valley, upstream from Derby on the southern edge of the Pennines, contains a series of 18th and 19th century cotton mills and an industrial landscape of high historical and technological significance. It began with the construction of the Silk Mill in Derby in 1721 for the brothers John and Thomas Lombe, which housed machinery for throwing silk, based on an Italian design. The scale, output, and numbers of workers employed were without precedent. However, it was not until Richard Arkwright constructed a water-powered spinning mill at Cromford in 1771, and a second, larger mill in 1776-77 that the "Arkwright System" was truly established. The workers' housing associated with this and the other mills are intact and span 24km of the Derwent valley from the edge of Matlock Bath in the north nearly to the centre of Derby in the south. The four principal industrial settlements of Cromford, Belper, Milford, and Darley Abbey are articulated by the river Derwent, the waters of which provided the power to drive the cotton mills. Much of the landscape setting of the mills and the industrial communities, which was much admired in the 18th and early 19th centuries, has survived.

In terms of industrial buildings the Derwent valley mills may be considered to be sui generis in the sense that they were the first of what was to become the model for factories throughout the world in subsequent centuries.

The cultural landscape of the Derwent valley was where the modern factory system was developed and established, to accommodate the new technology for spinning cotton developed by Richard Arkwright and new processes for efficient production.

The insertion of industrial establishments into a rural landscape necessitated the construction of housing for the workers in the mills, and the resulting settlements created an exceptional industrial landscape. The change from water to steam power in the 19th century moved the focus of the industry elsewhere and thus the main attributes of this remarkable cultural landscape were arrested in time.

Criterion (ii): The Derwent Valley saw the birth of the factory system, when new types of building were erected to house the new technology for spinning cotton developed by Richard Arkwright in the late 18th century.

Criterion (iv): In the Derwent Valley for the first time there was large-scale industrial production in a hitherto rural landscape. The need to provide housing and other facilities for workers and managers resulted in the creation of the first modern industrial settlements.

Integrity

The relationship of the industrial buildings and their dependent urban settlements to the river and its tributaries and to the topography of the surrounding rural landscape has been preserved, especially in the upper reaches of the valley, virtually intact. Similarly, the interdependence of the mills and other industrial elements, such as the canals and railway, and the workers' housing, is still plainly visible. All the key attributes of the cultural landscape are within the boundaries. The distinctive form of the overall industrial landscape is vulnerable in some parts to threats from large-scale development that would impact adversely on the scale of the settlements.

Authenticity

Although some of the industrial buildings have undergone substantial alterations and additions in order to accommodate new technological and social practices, their original forms, building materials, and structural techniques are still intact and easy to discern. Restoration work on buildings that have been in a poor state of repair has been carried out following detailed research on available documentation and contemporary built architectural examples, and every effort has been made to ensure that compatible materials are used. In those cases where buildings have been lost through fire or demolition, no attempt has been made to reconstruct. The overall landscape reflects well its technological, social and economic development and the way the modern factory system developed within this rural area on the basis of water power.

Protection and management requirements

A comprehensive system of statutory control operates under the provisions of the Town and Country Planning Act (1990) and the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act (1990). A network of strategic planning policies is also in place to protect the site. There are thirteen Conservation Areas falling wholly or partly within the property. 848 buildings within the area are included on the List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historical Interest. There are also nine Scheduled Ancient Monuments.

Management responsibility is shared by a number of local authorities and government agencies. The coordination mechanism is provided by the Derwent Valley Mills Partnership. This has established a close working relationship between the local authorities involved in the nominated area. This partnership has been responsible for the preparation of a management plan for the property, most recently revised in January 2007.