State of Conservation (SOC)
Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Serbia)
Factors affecting the property in 2011*
- Civil unrest
- Legal framework
- Management systems/ management plan
- Other Threats:
e) Unsatisfactory state of conservation and maintenance of the property.
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Lack of legal status of the property;
b) Lack of legislative protection of buffer zones;
c) Lack of implementation of the management plan and of active management;
d) Difficulties to monitor the property due to political instability, post-conflict situation (visits under the Kosovo Stabilisation Force / United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (KFOR / UNMIK) escort and lack of guards and security);
e) Unsatisfactory state of conservation and maintenance of the property.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
- Lack of legal status of the property;
- Lack of legislative protection of buffer zones;
- Lack of implementation of the management plan and of active management;
- Difficulties to monitor the property due to political instability, post-conflict situation (visits under the Kosovo Stabilisation Force / United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (KFOR / UNMIK) escort and lack of guards and security);
- Unsatisfactory state of conservation and maintenance of the property.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2011
Total amount provided to the property: USD 699,335 following the Donors Conference for the Protection and Preservation of Cultural Heritage in Kosovo, May 2005; USD 503,500 by the Italian Government, USD 75,335 by the Czech Government, USD 121,000 by the Greek Government and USD 2,000,000 by the Government of the Russian Federation.
International Assistance granted to the property until 2011
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 0USD
|2003||Preparation of the nomination of the monastery of Decani for ...||0 USD|
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
a) Full and permanent protection of the property in a secure and stable political environment;
b) Agreed medium-term plan for the restoration of wall paintings (including preventive conservation regime) and conservation and rehabilitation of the property;
c) Implementation of the management plan, and full establishment of buffer zones and boundaries including their legal protection.
Missions to the property until 2011**
January 2007: UNESCO intersectoral mission to Kosovo; July 2008: UNESCO BRESCE mission, January 2009: UNESCO BRESCE mission; August 2009: UNESCO BRESCE mission.
Corrective Measures for the property
Urgent / short-term corrective measures:
a) Put in place appropriate guarding and security arrangements for the Church of the Virgin of Ljeviša;
b) Prepare a conservation status report including a condition survey for the wall paintings and the status of the conservation works and take temporary measures where there is an urgent need (for example the lead roof of the west bay of the nave of the Church of Virgin of Ljeviša, that was partly removed);
c) Prepare a risk preparedness study, in conformity with Paragraph 118 of the Operational Guidelines and Decisions 28 COM 10B.4 and 30 COM 7.2.
Long-term corrective measures:
d) Ensure the adequate long-term administrative, regulatory protection and management of the property, in conformity with Paragraph 97 of the Operational Guidelines;
e) Put in place strong protective regimes for the buffer zones;
f) Adequately delineate the boundaries (e.g. extend the boundaries of the Patriarchate of Peć to include more of its riverside-valley settings);
g) Prepare detailed state of conservation reports as a basis for adapted monitoring, preventative conservation measures, and specific conservation projects to reverse decline;
h) Ensure appropriate and timely implementation of the management plan.
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
a) Urgent / short-term corrective measures to be taken by the State Party, in cooperation with UNESCO programmes, UNMIK and Provisional Institutions of Self Government in Kosovo;
b) Regarding the long-term corrective measures to be taken by the State Party, in co-operation with UNESCO programmes, UNMIK and Provisional Institutions of Self Government in Kosovo no specific timeframe can be given at this stage due to the political situation.
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2011
Note: The Secretariat was informed by the Legal Advisor that “The UNESCO Secretariat follows the practice of the United Nations, which considers that the Security Council Resolution 12.44 (1999) continues to be applicable to the territory of Kosovo until a final settlement is achieved”.
The World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008) acknowledged the continuing difficulties to monitor the property and the challenges to the follow-up to the intersectoral mission of January 2007 and recalled its request, in cooperation with UNESCO programmes, the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the Institutions of Kosovo, as well as future European arrangements, to continue to take long-term corrective measures, including: ensuring adequate long-term legislative, regulatory protection and management of the property and strong protective regimes for the buffer zones, adequately delineated boundaries and the timely implementation of the management plan.
Following the discussion on these issues at the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee (Quebec City, 2008) and as suggested by the Chairperson in her conclusions, the World Heritage Centre addressed a request for clarification to the Legal Advisor of UNESCO about the international “legal framework” of this matter. A Circular Letter dated 31 March 2009 entitled “Final Decision 32 COM 7A.27 concerning the Medieval Monuments in Kosovo” was sent to all States Parties to the World Heritage Convention and to the Advisory Bodies including the finalized decision.
a) State of conservation and international cooperation
A report on the state of conservation of the property was submitted by the Permanent Delegation of Serbia on 30 January 2009, indicating that the last monitoring at Decani Monastery took place on 17 January 2009, which noted that the monastery church is in good condition. However some deterioration at the facades had been noticed due to the lack of drainage and water gutter systems. It mentioned also the “boiler room” located in the buffer zones where structures were built. Concerning Gracanica Monastery the monitoring was carried out on 18 January 2009, it was noted that it was in a good condition with similar water effects on the lower walls. Several structures were built in the buffer zones, including residential wings, a new bell tower, a boiler room and garage. The threatened facade sculptures and wall painting are subject to conservation works carried out in stages and with NGO support. A workplan is suggested which includes the survey of the monastery complex, assessing priorities for projects, performing the works and monitoring and evaluation. In addition systematic excavation investigations should be performed. Concerning the Church of the Virgin of Ljevisa in Prizren, the structure is in good condition and the roofs and domes were covered in 2008 with lead metal plate. The Facades of the Patriarchate of Pec were restored in 2008.
As a follow up to the International Donors Conference (May 2005) and the 2007 Intersectorial mission and at the request of the Director-General of UNESCO, the UNESCO Venice Office (BRESCE), in cooperation with UNMIK, organized an expert mission to Kosovo from 19 to 22 January 2009.
The mission had the opportunity to update the information about the situation of the serial World Heritage property in Kosovo and visited the following parts of the property:
- Gracanica: The mission noted changes since the previous mission at the monuments including certain construction activities in the compound of the Monastery. The technical experts noted some damages on the frescoes. In the mission’s view, the restoration of the frescoes of the monastery may be proposed for financing through the contribution which the Russian Federation had announced to the Director-General of UNESCO. A further visit to Gracanica was made during the UNESCO (BRESCE) mission in August 2009, no changes were noted since the January 2009 mission;
- Decani: The mission observed that special attention should be paid to the proposal of the Monastery authorities related to the re-construction of the dormitory that was burned down in 1946, as the plan proposed was not cleared by the Institute for Protection of Monuments from Belgrade. In the case of further attempts related to the construction of this building an ICOMOS expert mission could be sent to review the plans and proposed solutions;
- Pec: The mission noted that the facade of the three churches was recently repainted in dark red color. No information on this development was received by the World Heritage Centre in compliance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
- Church of the Virgin of Ljeviska, Prizren: No changes have been noted by the mission since the last mission in July 2008. Although the keys of the restored monument were supposed to be handed over to the Church representatives, this has not happened. UNESCO is organizing the activities related to the restoration of the wall paintings; it is important to underline that the project should also include restoration of some external elements. Further works on the wall paintings could not be initiated before ensuring the appropriate architectural works and that no frescoes be endangered by atmospheric influences.
It may be noted that both the Director of the Center of Monuments of Serbia and the Director of Cultural Heritage in Kosovo cooperated with the January 2009 mission team.
In addition, the Assistant Director-General for Culture met with the staff concerned with Kosovo at the European Commission Offices in Brussels (EC – DG Enlargement) on 3 April 2009. Cooperation opportunities related to the Forum for Technical Information Exchange on Cultural Heritage in Kosovo were discussed. Launched on 28 January 2009, the Forum is open to all relevant technical stakeholders with the common objective of preserving and promoting cultural heritage. Its main purpose is to facilitate information exchange in view of a coordinated approach for the cultural heritage in Kosovo, including with UNMIK and UN Habitat. The Forum is not a decision-making body. The European Commission requested the participation of UNESCO at the technical level. Since 2009 UNESCO took part in two consecutive meetings of the Forum. Further to feedback received from donors and other stakeholders, the Forum has not yet achieved its originally defined objective. According to the available information, no further meetings of the Forum have taken place since March 2010.
In March 2010 the Assistant Director-General for Culture met with high representatives of the Serbian Orthodox Church to discuss issues related to the protection of the monasteries. In May and June 2010 respectively, the Assistant Director-General for Culture met with officials of the European Union, including the Head of the Liaison Office in Pristina, and with the Special Representative of the Secretary General and Head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to discuss issues related to the safeguarding of the 4 parts of the World Heritage property.
b) Reinforced monitoring mechanism
The mission of January 2009 concluded that the monitoring of the World Heritage property in Kosovo has to be reinforced. Due to the complex situation of the protection of heritage in Kosovo, underlining that the Church is the owner of this heritage, but considering the real will of all the parties to support and improve their efforts to protect World Heritage in Kosovo and the evolution of the cooperation among the managers of heritage, more frequent reporting could be developed as an intermediate solution.
On 29 October 2008 the Republic of Serbia wrote to the Director-General of UNESCO and requested to “approve reinforced monitoring of the “Medieval monuments in Kosovo ”in order to ensure timely implementation of the World Heritage Committee’s decisions relating of these monuments in danger”.
Following the January 2009 mission and the finalization of the Decision of the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee and its transmission to all States Parties on 31 March 2009, the Director General of UNESCO decided to activate the Reinforced monitoring mechanism after having carefully considered the specific circumstances of this property.
c) State of conservationupdate 2010-2011
On 3 February 2010 and on 31 January 2011, the Permanent Delegation of Serbia submitted update reports on the state of conservation, providing information on conservation and restoration works in the four parts of the serial World Heritage property.
The 2010 report informed about the protective archaeological investigations taking place in Decani Monastery in view of the need to build new residential quarters. The investigations were fully completed in 2010, as stated in the 2011 report. The residential quarters were reconstructed up to the ground level and the works continue in spring 2011. Detailed surveys and digitalization of frescoes of the Decani Monastery Church and the Church of the Virgin of Ljevisa have been made. Approvals for new gates and a farmhouse in the Patriarchate of Pec have been issued. Conservation and restoration works have been done on the Virgin Mary Odigitria Church frescoes. Urgent interventions were completed on the frescoes with the worst degradations in the Holy Annunciation Church, Gracanica Monastery.
A recent incident concerning 20 m2 of the roof of the Church of the Virgin of Ljeviska has been reported in April 2011 to UNESCO which requested UNMIK to assist with providing information on the investigations and will also contribute financially, through the UNESCO BRESCE Office, to the repair of the roof.
d) Handover of security responsibility
The World Heritage Centre was informed that a so-called “unfixing” process, which represents in substance the handover of security responsibility for “Properties with Designated Special Status” from the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) to Kosovo police, started in August 2010 on the basis of a decision of the North Atlantic Council of July 2010. The process is being implemented through a mechanism of regular consultations with the key stakeholders. Further to information provided by UNMIK to the World Heritage Centre, by January 2011 the transfer of guarding responsibilities from KFOR to Kosovo police has been completed with respect to Gracanica Monastery.
e) Restoration project
A USD 2 000 000 UNESCO/Russian Federation Funds-in-Trust (FiT) on “Safeguarding of World Heritage Sites in Kosovo” has been established, with UNESCO as implementing agency. The main objective of the FiT is to contribute to the restoration of the monuments and cultural heritage and to strengthen the local capacities in the field of preservation of cultural heritage.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2011
Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Serbia) (C 724 bis)
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Decides to adjourn the debate on this agenda item until its next ordinary session.
Establishment of the World Heritage List in Danger (Retained Properties)
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-11/35.COM/7A, WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add and WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add.Corr),
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
- Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 35 COM 7A.24)
- Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 35 COM 7A.25)
- Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 35 COM 7A.15)
- Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.1)
- Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 35 COM 7A.32)
- Colombia, Los Katios National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.16)
- Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.2)
- Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 35 COM 7A.3)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.4)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.5)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.6)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.7)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 35 COM 7A.8)
- Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 35 COM 7A.19)
- Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.9)
- Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 35 COM 7A.29)
- Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 35 COM 7A.30)
- Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 35 COM 7A.20)
- Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 35 COM 7A.21)
- Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 35 COM 7A.26)
- Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 35 COM 7A.22)
- Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 35 COM 7A.10)
- Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 35 COM 7A.11)
- Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 35 COM 7A.27)
- Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 35 COM 7A.33)
- Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 35 COM 7A.28)
- Senegal, Niokolo Koba National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.12)
- Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 35 COM 7A.31)
- United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 35 COM 7A.18)
- Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 35 COM 7A.17)
- United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.14)
- Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 35 COM 7A.34)
- Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 35 COM 7A.23)
Draft Decision: 35 COM 7A.28
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add,
2. Recalling Decisions 30 COM 8B.54, 31 COM 7A.28, 32 COM 7A.27, 33 COM 7A.27 and 34 COM 7A.28, adopted at its 30th (Vilnius, 2006), 31st (Christchurch, 2007), 32nd (Quebec City, 2008), 33rd (Seville, 2009) and 34th (Brasilia, 2010) sessions respectively,
3. Acknowledges the information provided by the state of conservation reports of 2009, 2010 and 2011 and the results of the mission of the UNESCO BRESCE Office to the property in 2009;
4. Reiterates its request, in cooperation with UNESCO, the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the Institutions of Kosovo, as well as future European arrangements, to continue to take long-term corrective measures, including: ensuring adequate long-term legislative, regulatory protection and management of the property and strong protective regimes for the monuments and the buffer zones; adequately delineated boundaries and the timely implementation of the management plan;
5. Also reiterates its requests, in cooperation with UNMIK, to continue efforts in completing the short-term and long-term corrective measures to achieve the Desired state of conservation defined, for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
6. Requests the submission, in cooperation with UNMIK, to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2012, of an updated report on the state of conservation of the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;
7. Decides to retain the Medieval Monuments in Kosovo on the List of World Heritage in Danger, and to continue applying the Reinforced monitoring mechanism until the 36th session of the World Heritage Committee in 2012.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).