Kaeng Krachan Forest Complex

Kaeng Krachan Forest Complex

The site is located along the Thailand side of the Tenasserim mountain range, part of a north-south granite and limestone mountain ridge running down the Malay Peninsula. Located at the cross-roads between the Himalayan, Indochina, and Sumatran faunal and floral realms, the property is home to rich biodiversity. It is dominated by semi-evergreen/dry evergreen and moist evergreen forest with some mixed deciduous forest, montane forest, and deciduous dipterocarp forest. A number of endemic and globally endangered plant and wildlife species have been reported in the property, which overlaps with two Important Bird Areas (IBAs) and is noted for its rich diversity of birdlife, including eight globally endangered fauna species. The property is home to the critically endangered Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), the endangered Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus), Banteng (Bos javanicus), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Yellow/Elongated Tortoise (Indotestudo elongata), and the endangered Asian Giant Tortoise (Manouria emys), as well as several other vulnerable species of birds and mammals. Remarkably, it is also home to eight cat species: the endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) and Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), the near-threatened Leopard (Panthera pardus) and Asian Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii), the vulnerable Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosi) and Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata), and the least concerned Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) and Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Complexe des forêts de Kaeng Krachan

Le site est situé le long de la partie thaïlandaise de la chaîne Tenasserim, un ensemble de montagnes de granite et de calcaire qui s'étend sur un axe nord-sud jusqu'à la péninsule malaise. Lieu de croisement de la faune et de la flore, le bien abrite une riche biodiversité et est principalement composé de forêts semi-sempervirentes, sempervirentes et humides sempervirentes, ainsi que de forêts de feuillus mixtes, de montagne et de diptérocarpes feuillus. Un certain nombre d'espèces de plantes et d'animaux sauvages endémiques et menacées à l'échelle mondiale ont été recensées sur le site qui recoupe deux Zones importantes pour la conservation des oiseaux (ZICO) et qui est connu pour la richesse de la diversité de ses oiseaux, y compris huit espèces de faune menacées à l'échelle mondiale. En outre, le bien abrite le crocodile du Siam (Crocodylus siamensis), en danger critique, le dhole (Cuon alpinus), menacé à l'échelle mondiale, le banteng (Bos javanicus), l'éléphant d'Asie (Elephas maximus), la tortue à tête jaune (Indotestudo elongata) et la tortue géante (Manouria emys), menacée d'extinction ainsi que d'autres espèces vulnérables d'oiseaux et de mammifères. Ce site remarquable abrite aussi huit espèces de félins : le tigre (Panthera tigris) et le chat viverrin (Prionailurus viverrinus), tous deux en danger ; le léopard (Panthera pardus) et le chat de Temminck (Catopuma temminckii), quasi menacés ; la panthère nébuleuse (Neofelis nebulosi) et le chat marbré (Pardofelis marmorata), espèces vulnérables ; et le chaus (Felis chaus) et le chat-léopard (Prionailurus bengalensis), les moins concernés.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

مجمَّع غابات كاينج كراشان

يمتد هذا الموقع على طول سلسلة جبال تناسريم من جهة تايلند، وهو جزء من قمم الجبال الجرانيتية والجيرية التي تمتد من الشمال إلى الجنوب في شبه جزيرة ملايو. ويوجد الموقع على تقاطع ممرات عبور الحيوانات والنباتات، ولذلك يزخر بالتنوع البيولوجي. ويغلب على الموقع وجود الغابات التي تتنوع بين غابات الأشجار شبه دائمة الخضرة/دائمة الخضرة الجافة والرطبة، مع خليط من غابات الأشجار المتساقطة الأوراق والغابات الجبلية وغابات الأشجار ثنائية الأوراق المتساقطة. وقد أُفيد بوجود عدد من أنواع النباتات المستوطنة والنباتات المهددة بالانقراض عالمياً في الموقع، الذي يتقاطع مع منطقتين هامتين لصون الطيور، والذي يشتهر بالتنوع الكبير في أنواع الطيور التي يوجد بينها ثمانية أنواع مهددة بالانقراض عالمياً. وفضلاً عن ذلك، يأوي هذا الموقع التمساح السيامي (Crocodylus siamensis) المهدد بشدة بالانقراض، والكلب البري الآسيوي (Cuon alpinus) وبقر بانتنغ (Bos javanicus) والفيل الآسيوي (Elephas maximus) والسلحفاة المستطيلة/الصفراء (Indotestudo elongata)، وجميعها مهددة بالانقراض عالمياً، والسلحفاة الآسيوية العملاقة (Manouria emys) المهددة بالانقراض، إلى جانب عدد من أنواع الطيور والثدييات المعرضة للخطر. ويلاحظ أنَّ هذا الموقع يؤي الأنواع الثمانية التالية من القطط: النمر (Panthera tigris) والسنور السمَّاك (Prionailurus viverrinus) المهددين بالانقراض، والنمر (Panthera pardus) والسنور الذهبي الآسيوي (Catopuma temminckii) شبه المعرضَين للخطر، والنمر الأرقط (Neofelis nebulosi) والسنور المعرَّق (Pardofelis marmorata) المعرضَين للخطر، وسنور الأدغال (Felis chaus) والسنور النمري(Prionailurus bengalensis).

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

岗卡章森林保护区

岗卡章森林保护区位于泰纳塞林山脉的泰国一侧,是沿着马来半岛呈南北方向延伸的花岗岩和石灰岩山脊的一部分。该遗产地位于喜马拉雅山、印度支那和苏门答腊动植物群区的交汇处,拥有丰富的生物多样性。植被以半常绿/旱常绿和湿润常绿林为主,混有落叶林、山地林和落叶龙脑香林。据报道,这里发现了许多地方性和全球性濒危植物物种,与2个重点鸟区重叠,以鸟类物种多样性闻名,其中包括 8个全球濒危鸟类物种。该遗产地是极度濒危的暹罗鳄、濒危的亚洲野犬、爪哇牛、亚洲象、缅甸陆龟和靴脚陆龟的家园,这里还生活着几种易危鸟类和哺乳动物。值得关注的是,这里也是8种猫科动物的栖息地:濒临灭绝的孟加拉虎和渔猫、近危的豹和亚洲金猫、易危的云豹和纹猫,以及丛林猫和豹猫。

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Лесной комплекс Каенг Крачан

Объект расположен вдоль таиландской стороны горного хребта Тенассерим, части горного хребта из гранитных и известняковых горных пород, спускающегося с севера на юг вдоль Малайского полуострова. Расположенный на перекрестке между Гималайским, Индокитайским и Суматранским фаунистическими и флористическими регионами, этот объект является домом для богатого биоразнообразия. Здесь преобладают полувечнозеленые / сухие вечнозеленые и влажные вечнозеленые леса, а также присутствуют смешанные лиственные леса, горные леса и лиственные диптерокарповые леса. Сообщается о ряде эндемичных и находящихся под угрозой исчезновения в глобальном масштабе видов растений на территории, совпадающей с двумя Ключевыми орнитологическими территориями (КОТ) и отличающейся богатым разнообразием видов птиц, включая восемь видов, находящихся в угрожаемом положении в глобальном масштабе. Кроме того, на территории объекта обитают находящийся на грани полного исчезновения сиамский крокодил (Crocodylus siamensis), виды, находящиеся под угрозой исчезновения, такие как красный волк (Cuon alpinus), бантенг (Bos javanicus), азиатский слон (Elephas maximus), желтоголовая индийская или продолговатая черепаха (Indotestudo elongata), а также исчезающий вид коричневой черепахи (Manouria emys) и нескольких других уязвимых видов птиц и млекопитающих. Примечательно, что здесь также обитают восемь видов кошачьих: исчезающие виды тигр (Panthera tigris) и кошка-рыболов (Prionailurus viverrinus), находящиеся в состоянии, близком к угрожаемому, леопард (Panthera pardus) и кошка Темминка (Catopuma temminckii), находящиеся в уязвимом положении дымчатый леопард (Neofelis nebulosi) и мраморная кошка (Pardofelis marmorata), а также камышовый кот (Felis chaus) и бенгальская кошка (Prionailurus bengalensis).

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Complejo de los bosques de Kaeng Krachan

El sitio está situado a lo largo de la vertiente tailandesa de la cordillera de Tenasserim, que forma parte de una cresta montañosa de granito y piedra caliza que va del norte al sur de la península de Malaca. Situado en una encrucijada entre los recursos faunísticos y florales del Himalaya, Indochina y Sumatra, el complejo alberga una rica biodiversidad. En ella predominan los bosques sempervirentes/secos perennes y húmedos perennes, con algunos bosques mixtos caducifolios, bosques montanos y bosques caducifolios de dipterocarpáceas. Se han registrado varias especies de plantas endémicas y en peligro de extinción en el sitio, que se solapa con dos Áreas Importantes para las Aves (IBA) y destaca por su rica diversidad de aves, incluidas ocho especies amenazadas a nivel mundial. Además, el sitio alberga al cocodrilo siamés (Crocodylus siamensis), en peligro crítico, al perro salvaje asiático (Cuon alpinus), al banteng (Bos javanicus), al elefante asiático (Elephas maximus), a la tortuga amarilla/alargada (Indotestudo elongata) y a la tortuga gigante asiática (Manouria emys), en peligro, así como a otras especies vulnerables de aves y mamíferos.

Sorprendentemente, también alberga ocho especies de felinos: el tigre (Panthera tigris) y el gato pescador (Prionailurus viverrinus), en peligro de extinción, el leopardo (Panthera pardus) y el gato dorado asiático (Catopuma temminckii), la pantera nebulosa, vulnerable (Neofelis nebulosi) y el gato jaspeado (Pardofelis marmorata), así como el gato de la selva (Felis chaus) y el gato leopardo (Prionailurus bengalensis).

source: UNESCO/CPE
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Kaeng Krachan Forest Complex © Sunee Sakseau
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Kaeng Krachan Forest Complex (KKFC) lies in the Tenasserim Range near the border area of Thailand and Myanmar. The Forest complex covers vast forest areas stretching across parts of three provinces in the western part of Thailand: namely Ratchaburi, Phetchaburi, and Prachuap Khiri Khan, and encompasses, almost entirely, three national parks and one wildlife sanctuary. Located in the Indo-Malayan ecoregion, the property has a total area of nearly 409,000 ha. The area’s topography is rugged with high mountains in the west and rolling hills to the east and elevation ranges between 37 and 1,231 meters above sea level. The climate is influenced by the north-eastern and south-western monsoon winds. At the macro-scale, KKFC boasts a rich and varied biological diversity resulting from the confluence of four zoogeographical sub-regions (Sundaic, Sino-Himalayan, Indochinese and Indo-Burmese) and four floristic provinces (Indo-Burmese or Himalayan, Indo-Malaysian, Annamatic, and Andamanese). The KKFC maintains significant populations of key globally significant species including the presence of endemic and endangered species. The property is also a priority site for the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot providing crucial areas for tiger and elephant conservation and protects a number of important bird habitats.

Criterion (x): KKFC hosts a remarkable range of mammals, birds and reptiles from this region and is considered as one of the top 500 most irreplaceable protected areas in the world for the conservation of mammal, bird and amphibian species. The property is characterised by six forest types, dominated by semi-evergreen, dry evergreen and moist evergreen forests and complemented by mixed deciduous forest, montane forest, and deciduous dipterocarp forest. The property represents a meeting point of several zoogeographical realms and floristic provinces being the northernmost point for many species from the south and conversely the southernmost point for species from the north. In addition to this macro scale diversity, the diverse geological characteristics and highly variable topography contribute to an exceptionally high habitat diversity at the micro scale. The property’s rich biodiversity is demonstrated by the presence of at least 459 known wild animal species, as well as by 81 rare species, and 48 endemic species.

The property is home to a large number of threatened and rare plant species, some of which are extinct elsewhere. Prunus kaengkrachanensis stands out as a rosaceous plant species discovered in 2015 and endemic to KKFC. Further critical species include Champi Doi (Magnolia gustavii), and Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) and Kamettia chandeei of the dogbane family. The species Geostachys smitinandii of the ginger family is found only in the KKFC and the Dong Phayayen – Khao Yai Forest Complex Natural World Heritage site of Thailand. The property is also the world’s only home to the plant species Trichosanthes phonsenae from the cucumber family first discovered in 2003.

KKFC also maintains healthy populations of globally important and threatened wildlife species. A complete suite of top carnivores has been identified in the area, including eight species of Felidae (cat species), including tiger (Panthera tigris). The property stands out as one of the last few places where the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is still present in the wild. It is home to the Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica), Elongated Tortoise (Indotestudo elongata), Asian Giant Tortoise (Manouria emys) as well as Banteng (Bos javanicus), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Dhole (Cuon alpinus), Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus), Malay tapir (Tapirus indicus), Mainland Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis), Gaur (Bos gaurus) and Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides).

Integrity

The nearly 409,000 ha property in Thailand is contiguous with a large forest area in neighbouring Myanmar, including the Taninthaya Forest Complex and the Tenasserim Ranges act as a natural border between the two countries. This connectivity context adds to the property’s integrity and offers scope for transboundary and corridor conservation opportunities across a much larger intact forest landscape. The KKFC also protects the head watersheds of many important rivers such as Phetchaburi, Kui Buri, Pranburi, Phachi, and Mae Klong Rivers. Some of these rivers provide water to the Ramsar Site of Sam Roi Yod National Park, which is one of Thailand’s best-known areas for water birds.

KKFC includes six forest types, which cover more than 96% of the property’s area. Dry evergreen forest covers a majority of the area, about 65%. The forest systems of the inscribed area remain intact and in good condition, providing suitable habitats for a remarkably diverse fauna and flora.

Protection and management requirements

The four protected areas comprising the KKFC are strictly protected under relevant legislation. The protected areas include a wildlife sanctuary (Mae Nam Phachi) protected under the Wildlife Protection and Preservation Act B.E.2562 (2019), and three national parks (Chaloem Phrakiat Thai Prachan, Kaeng Krachan and Kui Buri) protected under the National Park Act B.E. 2562 (2019). The Kaeng Krachan and Kui Buri National Parks are connected by Kui Buri Forest Reserve and an Army Reserve Zone. This corridor is also regarded as a protected area under the Forest Reserve Act B.E. 2507 (1964) and the Military Reserve Zone Act B.E. 2478 (1935). The main purpose of the protected area designations is to safeguard and preserve the overall ecological integrity of the area, including the outstanding wildlife and species values and forested watersheds for Phetchaburi and Prachuap Khiri Khan provinces. The protected area administration consists of a Superintendent Unit with one or more deputies for each component as well as patrol stations located in and around the boundaries.

The National Park Act and Wildlife Conservation and Protection Act, both adopted in 2019, intend to strike a balance between natural conservation and sustainable utilization of resources. The Acts aim to legally permit local communities to reside in the property’s protected areas while also being able to make use of forest products for their sustainable livelihoods. Moreover, the legislations shall promote the participation of local communities in important decision-making processes related to the KKFC, including protected area management plan, land tenure survey, and legal mechanisms to enhance understanding between the local communities and Thai Government officials concerning land use. Effective and inclusive participation of local communities and indigenous peoples will be essential to build positive relationships that support sustainable livelihoods and participatory management approaches to safeguard Outstanding Universal Value.

Patrols cover about half of KKFC, concentrating on high biodiversity areas and areas of vulnerability to threats. Less accessible areas are patrolled from the air with targeted drop-in patrols as well as foot patrols.