Decision : 42 COM 8B.30
Ivrea, industrial city of the 20th century (Italy)
The World Heritage Committee,
- Having examined Documents WHC/18/42.COM/8B and WHC/18/42.COM/INF.8B1,
- Inscribes Ivrea, industrial city of the 20th century, Italy, on the World Heritage List on the basis of criterion (iv);
- Takes note of the following provisional Statement of Outstanding Universal Value:
Founded in 1908 by Camillo Olivetti, the Industrial City of Ivrea is an industrial and socio-cultural project of the 20th century. The Olivetti Company manufactured typewriters, mechanical calculators and desktop computers. Ivrea represents a model of the modern industrial city and a response to the challenges posed by rapid industrial change. It is therefore able to exhibit a response and a contribution to 20th century theories of urbanism and industrialisation. Ivrea’s urban form and buildings were designed by some of the best-known Italian architects and town-planners of the period from the 1930s to the 1960s, under the direction of Adriano Olivetti. The city is comprised of buildings for manufacturing, administration, social services and residential uses, reflecting the ideas of the Movimento Comunità (Community Movement) which was founded in Ivrea in 1947 based on Adriano Olivetti’s 1945 book l’Ordine politico delle Comunità (The Political Order of Communities). The industrial city of Ivrea therefore represents a significant example of 20th century theories of urban development and architecture in response to industrial and social transformations, including the transition from mechanical to digital industries.
Criterion (iv): The industrial city of Ivrea is an ensemble of outstanding architectural quality that represents the work of Italian modernist designers and architects and demonstrates an exceptional example of 20th century developments in the design of production, taking into account changing industrial and social needs. Ivrea represents one of the first and highest expressions of a modern vision in relation to production, architectural design and social aspects at a global scale in relation to the history of industrial construction, and the transition from mechanical to digitalised industrial technologies.
The attributes of the property are: the spatial plan of the industrial city, the public buildings and spaces, and residential buildings developed by Olivetti (including their extant interior elements). The influences of the Community Movement on the provision of buildings for residential and social purposes is an important intangible element, although the functions of most non-residential buildings have ceased.
The integrity of this urban area is based on the inclusion of the buildings, spaces and urban form required to convey the significance of Ivrea’s 20th century development. The state of conservation of the city’s components is variable. Many of the residential buildings exhibit a good/adequate state of conservation. However, the integrity of the property is considered to be vulnerable due many factors and pressures including the encroachment of new urban developments, the deteriorating condition of some key industrial buildings and building interiors, the existence of some visually intrusive new constructions inside the property boundary and its buffer zone, and loss of the original activities and purposes due to the decline in manufacturing. The high number of vacant buildings and the need to find new uses also contribute to Ivrea’s vulnerable integrity.
The authenticity of Ivrea is based on the high number and quality of urban and architectural projects that date to the primary period of Ivrea’s development as an industrial city. A detailed analysis of the individual components in terms of their form, design and materials, and their location and immediate environment has been undertaken, and many elements have maintained their original characteristics in spite of the changes to production that affected the city during the last two decades. While many residential, administrative and services buildings are intact, other have been renovated; and a large number of the buildings are currently vacant, with an uncertain future. There is a risk of gradual loss of the authenticity of the property due to large-scale refurbishment proposals, decay of the exterior finishing of the facades and deterioration of the interior decoration and detailing. Efforts have been made to develop new uses that are similar in type to their original uses (such as telecommunications, production or cultural activities).
Protection and management requirements
Ivrea is protected according to legislative regimes at the national, regional and local levels. These include the national Cultural Heritage and Landscape Code (revised in 2004); the Regional Landscape and Cultural Heritage Code and the Regional Landscape Plan (2015); and the Ivrea Land Use Plan (2006). National protection for Ivrea is in place only for some buildings, and is still to be completed. The system of legal protection is complex and multi-tiered, with a heavy reliance on the commitment, resources and expertise of both national and municipal authorities. Improved streamlining and coordination between the local, regional and national institutions is needed. The protection of the visual integrity of the property and its buffer zone will be strengthened by the adoption by Ivrea Council of the regulation of the regional landscape plan, integrating the guidelines and prescriptions directly relating to the protection, safeguard and enhancement of the property into the municipal regulations by October 2019. The municipal technical service department directly responds to proposed projects and grants authorisations, taking account of national, regional and local designations for buildings and landscape (for the buffer zone).
Challenges to the long-term conservation of the Outstanding Universal Value of Ivrea arise in relation to the resourcing of conservation and the need for new uses throughout the city’s elements. 44% of the former industrial and corporate buildings of the property are vacant or underused, and there are short-term needs for maintenance strategies. Engagement with residents and other users is an ongoing priority. Currently visitor levels are low, and there are plans to increase tourism capacity.
The Management Plan was updated in September 2017, and outlines a number of short and longer-term Action Plans for protection, conservation and documentation; capacity building; communication and education; and presentation. The management system includes a Steering Committee chaired by the Mayor; Technical Advisory Boards appointed by the Steering Committee; and the Site Coordinator. The General Secretary of the Municipality of Ivrea is the operating representative who coordinates all the municipal departments involved in the delivery of the actions in the management plan. The Municipality of Banchette has signed a Memorandum of Understanding to implement the Management Plan in relation to the small area occurring within its boundaries.
- Requests the State Party to:
- Finalise the adoption by Ivrea Council of the regulation of the regional landscape plan, integrating the guidelines and prescriptions directly relating to the protection, safeguarding and enhancement of the property into the municipal regulations by December 2019,
- Ensure effective coordination between national, regional and local levels of protection,
- Revise the property boundary to exclude the site of the recent housing project facing the ‘Red Brick building’ (Fabbrica di Mattoni Rossi), and include it in the buffer zone,
- Provide a strategic conservation plan for the property, including the planned conservation outcomes for each building, strategies for new uses of vacant buildings, and resources for maintenance and send it by December 2019;
- Recommends that the State Party give consideration to the following:
- Fully implementing and clearly setting out the monitoring system (including the frequency of measurement of indicators) in order to monitor the state of conservation of the attributes, and the mitigation of identified pressures,
- Ensuring that all new construction projects (including adaptive reuse) that could impact the Outstanding Universal Value of the property are the subject of Heritage Impact Assessment and are communicated to the World Heritage Centre in line with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines.