Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius

Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius

The Late Roman fortified palace compound and memorial complex of Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius, in the east of Serbia, was commissioned by Emperor Caius Valerius Galerius Maximianus, in the late 3rd and early 4th centuries. It was known as Felix Romuliana, named after the emperor’s mother. The site consists of fortifications, the palace in the north-western part of the complex, basilicas, temples, hot baths, memorial complex, and a tetrapylon. The group of buildings is also unique in its intertwining of ceremonial and memorial functions.

Gamzigrad-Romuliana, palais de Galère

Gamzigrad, à l’est de la Serbie, est un palais fortifié de l’époque romaine tardive, associé à un mémorial sur la colline adjacente. Il fut édifié à la fin du IIIe siècle et au début du IVe siècle, sur ordre de l’empereur Caius Valerius Galerius Maximianus et est connu sous le nom de Felix Romuliana, du nom de la mère de l’empereur. Le site est constitué de fortifications, d’un palais dans la partie nord-ouest de l’ensemble, de basiliques, temples, thermes, mémorial et d’un tétrapyle. Le groupe de constructions est aussi unique en ce qu’il entremêle cérémonial et mémorial.

غامزيغراد- روموليانا، قصر غاليريوس

غامزيغراد قصر روماني محصَّن وقديم يقابله مجمَّع تذكاري على هضبة مجاورة. بني القصر في أواخر القرن الثالث ومطلع القرن الرابع بتفويض من الامبراطور الروماني كايوس فاليريوس غاليريوس ماكسيميانوس، وكان يُدعى قصر "فيليكس روموليانا"، نسبةً إلى والدة الامبراطور. ويحوي الموقع تحصينات عدة، فيما القصر الواقع في شمال غرب المجمَّع يؤوي معابد وحمامات ساخنة ومجمَّعاً تذكارياً وبوابات ضخمة. كما يوفر الموقع شهادة فريدة عن تقاليد البناء الرومانية، ويزاوج بين الوظائف الاحتفالية والتذكارية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

贾姆济格勒-罗慕利亚纳的加莱里乌斯宫

贾姆济格勒-罗慕利亚纳的加莱里乌斯宫位于塞尔维亚东部,建于3世纪末至4世纪初的罗马帝国末期,是皇帝加莱里乌斯下令修建的。这座堡垒式宫殿以皇太后菲利克斯•罗慕利亚纳的名字命名,包括城堡、位于建筑群西北部的宫殿、教堂、修道院、浴室、礼拜堂和一座凯旋门。这处遗产是罗马传统建筑的典型代表,同时带有第二次四君主制时期的思想烙印。这处建筑群的独特之处,还在于将举行仪式和纪念活动的功能集于一身。整个建筑群分为两大部分,中间以凯旋门相连。巨大的拱门横跨道路,一侧是堡垒和宫殿。另一侧是墓地和纪念碑。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Дворец Галерия «Гамзиград-Ромулиана»

Архитектурный ансамбль, включающий замок позднего периода Римской империи и мемориал, был внесен в Список как образец традиционной архитектуры Римской империи периода второй тетрархии. Сочетание церемониальных элементов с чертами мемориала составляют еще одну отличительную особенность этого ансамбля. Пространственная связь между двумя архитектурными группами объекта устанавливается с помощью тетрапилона, расположенного на перекрестке между дворцом с его фортификациями – символами мирского - с одной стороны, и мавзолеями и мемориальными сооружениями – символами духовного – с другой.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Gamzigrado-Romuliana – Palacio de Galerio

Situado al este de Serbia, el sitio de Gamzigrado es un complejo monumental de la época romana tardía formado por una serie de edificios palatinos fortificados y un conjunto construcciones conmemorativas situado en una colina adyacente. Su construcción, ordenada por el emperador romano Cayo Valerio Galerio Maximiano, data de finales del siglo III y principios del siglo IV. El sitio, designado con el nombre de la madre del emperador, Felix Romuliana, comprende, además del palacio situado en la parte noroccidental, una serie de fortificaciones, basílicas, templos, termas y edificios conmemorativos, así como un tetrapylon. Este vasto complejo monumental es un ejemplo único en su género del entrelazamiento de las funciones ceremoniales y conmemorativas.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ガムジグラード‐ロムリアーナ、ガレリウスの宮殿

source: NFUAJ

Gamzigrad-Romuliana, paleis van Galerius

Dit laat-Romeinse versterkte paleis en monumentencomplex ligt in het oosten van Servië. Het werd gebouwd in opdracht van keizer Caius Valerius Galerius Maximianus in de laat 3e en begin 4e eeuw. Het stond bekend als Felix Romuliana, vernoemd naar de moeder van de keizer. De plek bestaat uit forten, het paleis in het noordwestelijke deel van het complex, basilieken, tempels, hete baden, het gedenktekencomplex en een Tetrapylon. Het paleis met zijn vestingwerken en de monumenten vormen een bijzonder getuigenis van de Romeinse bouwtraditie en is uniek vanwege de manier waarop ceremoniële en herdenkingsfuncties verweven zijn.

Source: unesco.nl

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Aerial south-east view of the complex © Institute for protection of cultural monuments
Outstanding Universal Value

Gamzigrad-Romuliana is a Late Roman palace and memorial complex built in the late 3rd and early 4th centuries, commissioned by the Emperor Galerius Maximianus. The strong fortifications of the palace are an allusion to the fact that the Tetrarchy Emperors were all senior military leaders. The spatial and visual relationships between the palace and the memorial complex, where the mausoleums of the Emperor and his mother Romula are located, are unique.

Criterion (iii): The fortifications, the palace, and the memorial complex are a unique testimony of the Roman construction tradition pervaded by the ideological programme of the Second Tetrachy and Galerius himself as their builder.

Criterion (iv): The group of buildings comprising the architectural complex of the Emperor Galerius is unique in that it intertwines the ceremonial and the memorial programme. The relation between two spatial ensembles is stressed by placing the Tetrapylon on the crossroads between the worldly fortification with the palace and the other-worldly mausoleums and consecration monuments.

The integrity and authenticity of Gamzigrad-Romuliana are clearly demonstrated: relatively few excavations have been carried out to date and there has been no attempt to reconstruct the much degraded remains. There are no plans for reconstruction beyond what is needed for conservation and can be substantiated through research, as these would diminish the level of authenticity.

The property is protected by: the Decision by the Institute for the Preservation and Scientific Examination of the Cultural Goods of the PR of Serbia (No 407/48, 19 March 1948); the Decision on the Identification of Immovable Cultural Goods of Outstanding and of Great Importance (Official Gazette 14/79); the Cultural Properties Law (The Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No 71/94). A buffer zone has been established. The conservation of the remains is satisfactory. The property is managed at the level of the Republic of Serbia by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Serbia.

Historical Description

The Gamzigrad fortified palace was built by the Roman Emperor Caius Valerius Galerius Maximianus, the successor of Diocletian in the Second Tetrarchy, at the end of the 3rd and the beginning of the 4th century CE. This was substantiated by the discovery of a sculpted head in the Emperor's likeness during excavation of the baths.

The tetrarchy form of governance required the Emperor to abdicate after twenty years of rule and, having celebrated the vicennallia, to retire. Galerius followed the model of his ideological father, Diocletian, and made plans for the construction of a palace, surrounded by ramparts, in the area of his origin where he intended to spend the rest of his life.

Galerius was not able to devote himself to the construction of the fortress-palace until after his victory over the Persian king Narses in 297. With the title of Caesar and as the adopted son and heir of Diocletian, he began the work in his place of origin in Dacia Ripensis, today Eastern Serbia. He named the fortress Romuliana after his Dacian mother Romula. A fragment of an archivolt found in the excavations bears the inscription Felix Romuliana circled with a laurel wreath. The inner fortifications of the compound, the palace in the north-western part, and the small temple were erected in this first stage.

After the death of Constantius Chlorus in 306, Galerius became the most powerful man in the Roman Empire. Viewed from that lofty position, the fortress appeared to be too humble. Work then under way was abandoned to concentrate on a more monumental fortress encompassing the buildings already erected. A huge temple dedicated to Jupiter was erected in the south part of the compound. The new phase is characterised by even greater lavishness of decoration full of symbolic meaning, executed in various materials.

On the hill to the east of the fortified palace, Galerius built mausoleums for himself and for his mother flanked by consecrational monuments in the shape of tumuli. The latter are connected with the apotheosis - the symbolic elevation to the status of god.

As Caesar, Galerius was identified with Hercules and later, when he had been raised to the status of Augustus, with Jupiter. Connecting rulers with the divine hierarchy was one of the characteristics of tetrarchy. As a divine personification Galerius wanted to provide for his mother a place among the gods, and through the act of apotheosis he secured divine immortality for Romula.

The tetrapylon which marked a crossroads was erected above the intersection of the Roman road leading to Romuliana and the road to the memorial complex to mark the intersection of earthly and heavenly roads.

The main role in the construction of all the buildings was played by the V Macedonian Legion which followed Galerius in the battles he fought in the East and which served as construction labour in periods of peace.

After the Emperor's death in 311 life in the palace went on, but without royal ceremonies. The palace and other buildings were redecorated and put to other uses. This quiet decline continued until the end of the 5th century when the throne hall was converted into a three-aisle Christian basilica. At the time, along the eastern facade of the palace, another building was put up with an atrium in the centre and an apse with a small marble basin, probably a font. Several towers of the defensive bulwark were turned into craft shops manufacturing items needed by the new inhabitants.

At this time Romuliana was an important village community where a court official might have resided. Around the mid 5th century the compound sustained heavy damage and was burned, probably following the invasion of the Huns. In the second half of the 5th and the 6th century Romuliana was reconstructed, but it never regained its former splendour. The new buildings were inferior both in size and in the manner of construction.

During the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian some extensive construction was undertaken. In this period considerable architectural and spatial changes were carried out. A monumental three-aisle basilica with a four-leaf font was erected in the palace compound, overshadowing the existing building with its exceptionally beautiful mosaics. The east gateway was abandoned and the west gate became the main entrance. Architectural decorative sculptural elements from the palace and temples of Galerius were reused as building material.

At the beginning of the 7th century, owing to frequent raids by the Avars and the Slavs, the site was abandoned. The remains of the former palace were reoccupied, as late as the beginning of the 9th century, when a small medieval settlement developed in the eastern part of the compound.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation