Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes

Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes

Following the left bank of the Lower Rhine River for approximately 400 km from the Rhenish Massif in Germany to the North Sea coast in the Netherlands, the transnational property consist of 102 components from one section of the frontiers of the Roman Empire, which in the 2nd century CE, stretched across Europe, the Near East, and North Africa, over 7,500 km. The property comprises military and civilian sites and infrastructure that marked the edge of Lower Germany from the 1st to 5th centuries CE. Archaeological remains in the property include legionary fortresses, forts, fortlets, towers, temporary camps, roads, harbours, a fleet base, a canal and an aqueduct, as well as civilian settlements, towns, cemeteries, sanctuaries, an amphitheatre, and a palace. Almost all of these archaeological remains are buried underground. Waterlogged deposits in the property have enabled a high degree of preservation of both structural and organic materials from the Roman periods of occupation and use.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Frontières de l’Empire romain – le limes de Germanie inférieure

Suivant la rive gauche du Rhin inférieur sur environ 400 km – du Massif rhénan en Allemagne à la côte de la mer du Nord aux Pays-Bas –, ce bien transnational est composé de 102 éléments appartenant à une section des frontières de l’Empire romain qui, au IIe siècle de notre ère, s’étendait sur 7 500 km à travers l’Europe, le Proche-Orient et l’Afrique du Nord. Le bien comprend des sites et des infrastructures militaires et civiles qui ont matérialisé la frontière de la Germanie inférieure du Ier au Ve siècle de notre ère. Les vestiges archéologiques du bien comprennent des camps légionnaires, des forts, des fortins, des tours, des camps temporaires, des routes, des ports, une base navale, un canal et un aqueduc, ainsi que des établissements civils, des villes, des cimetières, des sanctuaires, un amphithéâtre et un palais. La quasi-totalité de ces vestiges archéologiques est enfouie sous terre. Les gisements gorgés d’eau du bien ont permis un haut degré de préservation des matériaux structurels et organiques datant des périodes d’occupation et d’utilisation romaines.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

تخوم الإمبراطورية الرومانية – الحدود الجرمانية الدنيا

يمتد هذا الموقع على طول 400 كم تقريباً بمحاذاة الضفة اليسرى لنهر الراين الأدنى، ويبدأ من كتلة جبال الراين في ألمانيا وينتهي في ساحل بحر الشمال في هولندا، ويتألف هذا الموقع العابر للحدود من 102 عنصراً ضمن قطاع واحد من حدود الإمبراطورية الرومانية، التي توسَّعت خلال القرن الثاني الميلادي لتمتد على طول 7500 كم عبر أوروبا والشرق الأوسط وشمال أفريقيا. ويضمُّ الموقع بين جنباته مواقع وبنى أساسية عسكرية ومدنية كانت نقاط علام للحدود الجرمانية الدنيا من القرن الأول الميلادي حتى القرن الخامس الميلادي. ويوجد في الموقع بقايا أثرية تتنوع بين قواعد عسكرية وحصون وتحصينات وأبراج، ومعسكرات مؤقتة وطرق وموانئ وقواعد للأساطيل، وقناة وقناة لجر المياه، ومستوطنات للمدنيين ومدن ومقابر ومعابد ومدرَّج وقصر، ولا يزال مجمل هذه البقايا الأثرية تقريباً مدفوناً تحت الأرض. وقد أدَّت الترسبات المشبعة بالمياه في الموقع، دوراً في حفظ المواد الإنشائية والعضوية بدرجة كبيرة، وهي تنحدر من الحقب التي سادت فيها الإمبراطورية الرومانية وقامت باستخدامها.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

罗马帝国边境--下日耳曼界墙

从德国的莱茵山地到荷兰的北海沿岸,下日耳曼界墙由莱茵河下游左岸约400公里沿线的102个遗产点组成,是罗马帝国边境的一部分。公元2世纪,罗马帝国横跨欧洲、近东和北非,跨度超过7500公里。这些遗产点包括标识公元1-5世纪的下日耳曼边疆的军事和民用遗迹以及基础设施。该遗产地的考古遗迹包括军事基地、堡垒、塔楼、临时营地、道路、港口、舰队基地、运河和渡槽,以及平民居住区、城镇、墓地、避难所、圆形剧场和宫殿。几乎所有这些考古遗迹都埋在地下。遗迹中的浸水沉积物使罗马占领时期的结构和有机材料得到高度完好的保存。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Укрепленные рубежи Римской империи - Нижнегерманские рубежи

Этот транснациональный объект, протяженностью примерно 400 км вдоль левого берега реки Нижний Рейн от Рейнского массива в Германии до побережья Северного моря в Нидерландах, состоит из 102 компонентов, расположенных в части пограничной линии древней Римской империи, которая во II веке нашей эры простиралась через Европу, Ближний Восток и Северную Африку на более чем 7500 км. Нижнегерманские рубежи включают в себя военные и гражданские объекты и инфраструктуру, обозначавшие край Нижней Германии с I по V вв. н. э. Археологические находки на территории объекта включают военные базы, форты, крепости, башни, временные лагеря, дороги, гавани, базу флота, канал и акведук, а также гражданские поселения, города, кладбища, святилища, амфитеатр и дворец. Почти все эти археологические останки захоронены под землей. Заболоченные отложения позволили обеспечить высокую степень сохранности как структурных, так и органических материалов периода римской оккупации и использования.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Fronteras del Imperio Romano – Limes de la Baja Alemania

Siguiendo la ribera izquierda del Bajo Rin a lo largo de unos 400 km desde el Macizo renano en Alemania hasta la costa del Mar del Norte en los Países Bajos, este sitio transnacional consta de 102 componentes de una sección de las fronteras del Imperio Romano, que en el siglo II de nuestra era se extendía por Europa, Oriente Próximo y el Norte de África, a lo largo de 7.500 km. El sitio comprende emplazamientos e infraestructuras militares y civiles que marcaron el límite de la Baja Alemania entre los siglos I y V de nuestra era. Los vestigios arqueológicos del sitio incluyen campamentos de legionarios, fuertes, fortines, torres, campamentos temporarios, carreteras, puertos, una base para la flota, un canal y un acueducto, así como asentamientos civiles, ciudades, cementerios, santuarios, un anfiteatro y un palacio. Casi todos estos restos arqueológicos están enterrados. Los depósitos repletos de agua del sitio han permitido un alto grado de conservación de los materiales estructurales y orgánicos de los períodos romanos de ocupación y uso.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes. Visualisation by gabions of the known remains of the stone fort. © Nederlandse Limes Samenwerking (NL)
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes ran for 400 km along the Lower Rhine, along the north-eastern boundary of the Roman frontier province of Germania Inferior (Lower Germany), from the Rhenish Massif south of Bonn (Germany) to the North Sea coast (the Netherlands). For more than 450 years from the late 1st century BC, it protected the Roman Empire against Germanic tribes. The first military bases were built in the last decades BC for the conquest of Germanic territories across the Rhine. Once this ambition had failed the left river bank was converted into a fortified frontier. Military installations of varying types and sizes and associated civil structures and infrastructures were built on the edge of the river. The frontier shared the phased disintegration of the Western Roman Empire until the mid-5th century. The remains of the Frontier illustrate the important impacts of the Roman military presence on the landscape and society of the periphery of the Empire.

The serial property of 102 component parts in 44 clusters illustrates the innovative responses of Roman military engineers to the challenges posed by the dynamic landscape of a lowland river, as witnessed by the positioning and design of the military installations and by water management works. Large early bases and small later strongholds are represented, reflecting strategic adaptation and development of military engineering. These first military bases represent the very beginning of the linear perimeter defence of the Roman Empire, which would develop into a coherent frontier system extending over three continents in the 2nd century AD. The wetland conditions have led to an outstanding preservation of timber and other organic remains, providing unparalleled insights into military construction, shipbuilding, logistics and supply of the Empire.

Criterion (ii): The extant remains of Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes constitute significant elements of the Roman Frontiers present in Europe. With its legionary fortresses, forts, fortlets, watchtowers, linked infrastructure and civilian architecture, it exhibits an important cultural interchange at the height of the Roman Empire, through the development of Roman military architecture, extending the technical knowledge of construction and management to the very edges of the Empire. It reflects the imposition of a complex frontier system on the societies of the north-western part of the Roman Empire, introducing military installations and related civilian settlements, linked through an extensive supporting network. The frontier did not constitute an impregnable barrier, but controlled and allowed the movement of peoples including civilians and merchants, and profound changes and developments in settlement patterns, architecture, landscape design and spatial organisation.

Criterion (iii): As part of the Roman Empire’s system of defence, the Lower German Limes bears an exceptional testimony to the maximum extension of the power of the Roman Empire through the consolidation of its north-western frontiers. The Frontier constitutes a physical manifestation of Roman imperial policy, and the spread of Roman culture and its traditions – military, engineering, architecture, religion, management and politics. The large number of human settlements associated with the defences contribute to an understanding of how soldiers and their families lived in this part of the Roman Empire.

Criterion (iv): Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes was the earliest linear frontier of the Roman Empire, created as an answer to Rome’s inability to control its northern neighbours by means of diplomacy. Its military installations illustrate the development of the large operational bases of a field army to the smaller installations required by an extended frontier line. Situated in an area which has always been a wetland, with outstanding preservation conditions, Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes exhibits water management strategies and constructions employed by the military command of the Roman Empire. The component parts contain organic materials and artefacts bearing information of exceptional value to understandings of frontier life and on vanished traditions such as river boat building.

Integrity

The component parts of the serial property have been selected to represent the linearity and attributes of the Frontier, demonstrating the early development of the perimeter defence. They include the range of military installations and associated structures of a frontier system, explaining its functioning and development. The general state of conservation is good to very good. Most archaeological materials and structures are buried and are not exposed to significant threats. The component part boundaries and buffer zones are generally appropriate, although a number of minor revisions to the boundaries and buffer zones are recommended.

Authenticity

The archaeological sites that comprise the Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Lower German Limes have a high level of authenticity. Virtually all the remains were buried during or soon after the Roman period and have been protected from later developments. The authenticity of form and design of nearly all elements is unaffected by changes after the Roman period. Stone walls, timber and organic remains have been preserved to a high level. The location and setting of the elements of the frontier have in most cases changed considerably by changes to the Rhine and changes in land use, including urbanisation. At four sites the present setting is reminiscent of the Roman landscape. Reconstructions occur at five sites and at others, interpretive visualisations have been established.

Protection and management requirements

The transnational serial property is legally protected by national and state laws on heritage protection of Germany (federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate) and the Netherlands. Management is coordinated by a joint Dutch-German Management Group, which is overseen by an Intergovernmental Committee. The joint Management Group sets out the main lines of the management and supervises the implementation of the national management plans and the periodic reporting, based on a Joint Declaration. The management organisation will cooperate with counterparts of the existing and future inscribed segments of the Frontiers of the Roman Empire. A framework for this international cooperation is provided by the Frontiers of the Roman Empire World Heritage Cluster set up in 2018 to support international collaboration in those fields relevant to the overall management and development of the Frontiers of the Roman Empire in Europe as World Heritage.

The Management Plan is strategic and high-level, and sets out the elements required for a common framework for the transnational serial property. Much of the needed detail will be developed at a later stage, including the development of individual site management plans. Recommendations for strengthening the management include the development of frameworks for research, interpretation and sustainable tourism, and establishment of Heritage Impact Assessment processes (for the component parts in Germany). Development of policy guidance on reconstructions and visualisations should be advanced through the transnational cooperation mechanisms established for the Frontiers of the Roman Empire.