Ivrea, industrial city of the 20th century

Ivrea, industrial city of the 20th century

The industrial city of Ivrea is located in the Piedmont region and developed as the testing ground for Olivetti, manufacturer of typewriters, mechanical calculators and office computers. It comprises a large factory and buildings designed to serve the administration and social services, as well as residential units. Designed by leading Italian urban planners and architects, mostly between the 1930s and the 1960s, this architectural ensemble reflects the ideas of the Community Movement (Movimento Comunità). A model social project, Ivrea expresses a modern vision of the relationship between industrial production and architecture.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Ivrée, cité industrielle du XXe siècle

Située dans la région du Piémont, la cité industrielle d’Ivrée s’est développée comme le terrain d’expérimentation d’Olivetti, fabricant de machines à écrire, calculatrices mécaniques et ordinateurs de bureau. Elle comprend une grande usine, des bâtiments administratifs ainsi que des édifices consacrés aux services sociaux et au logement. Conçu par des urbanistes et des architectes italiens de premier plan, essentiellement entre les années 1930 et les années 1960, cet ensemble architectural reflète les idées du Mouvement communautaire (Movimento Comunità). Projet social exemplaire, Ivrée exprime une vision moderne de la relation entre la production manufacturière et l’architecture.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

مدينة إيفري الصناعية التي تعود للقرن العشرين

تقع مدينة إيفري الصناعية في إقليم بييمونتي، إذ أصبحت ساحة تجارب لشركة أوليفيتي المعنية بتصنيع آلات الطباعة والآلات الحاسبة الميكانيكية وأجهزة الحاسوب المكتبية. إذ تحتوي المدينة على مصنع كبير ومبان إدارية بالإضافة إلى مبان مخصصة لتقديم الخدمات الاجتماعية وتوفير السكن. وقد صمّمت مجموعة من نخبة مهندسي التخطيط الحضري والعمراني الإيطاليين هذا المجمع المعماري بصورة أساسية بين الثلاثينيات والستينات، إذ يجسّد أفكار الحركة الشعبية Movimento Comunità. وتعبر مدينة إيفري، بوصفها مشروعاً اجتماعيّاً مثالياً، عن رؤية معاصرة للعلاقة بين الإنتاج الصناعي والهندسة المعمارية. 

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

20世纪工业城市伊夫雷亚

工业城市伊夫雷亚位于皮埃蒙特地区,这里曾是打字机、机械计算机和办公电脑制造商好利获得(Olivetti)的试验场。遗产地包括一座大型工厂和用于行政、社会服务及住宅用途的建筑。该建筑群大多为20世纪30-60年代间的意大利著名城市规划师和建筑师的作品,是社区运动(Movimento Comunità)的体现。伊夫雷亚是一个典型的社会项目,表达了现代视野下工业生产与建筑之间的关系。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Ивреа, промышленный город XX века

Расположенный в регионе Пьемонт, промышленный город Ивреа развивался как экспериментальная площадка компании Olivetti, производителя пишущих машинок, механических калькуляторов и настольных компьютеров. В городе находятся крупный завод, административные здания, а также специализированные помещения, предназначенные для социальных услуг и жилья. Разработанный ведущими итальянскими проектировщиками и архитекторами, в основном в период между 1930-ми и 1960-ми годами, этот архитектурный ансамбль отражает идеи коммунального развития Movimento Comunità. Будучи образцовым социальным проектом, город Ивреа является примером современного видения взаимосвязи между производством и архитектурой.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Conjunto industrial del siglo XX en Ivrea

Situado en la región piamontesa, el conjunto industrial de la ciudad de Ivrea ha sido el laboratorio de experimentación y producción de la empresa Olivetti, dedicada a la fabricación de máquinas de escribir, calculadoras mecánicas y computadoras de oficina. Además de una gran fábrica, el sitio comprende toda una serie de edificios destinados a albergar diferentes servicios administrativos y sociales, así como viviendas para el personal. Diseñado por eminentes arquitectos italianos entre el decenio de 1930 y el de 1960, este conjunto arquitectónico es una plasmación de las ideas del Movimiento Comunitario (Movimento Comunità) cuyo objetivo era llevar a cabo proyectos sociales con una visión moderna de la relación entre la arquitectura y la producción manufacturera. 

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
Corso Jervis, in the foreground, the Officine ICO and the Social Services Centre © Guelpa Foundation
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Founded in 1908 by Camillo Olivetti, the Industrial City of Ivrea is an industrial and socio-cultural project of the 20th century. The Olivetti Company manufactured typewriters, mechanical calculators and desktop computers. Ivrea represents a model of the modern industrial city and a response to the challenges posed by rapid industrial change. It is therefore able to exhibit a response and a contribution to 20th century theories of urbanism and industrialisation. Ivrea’s urban form and buildings were designed by some of the best-known Italian architects and town-planners of the period from the 1930s to the 1960s, under the direction of Adriano Olivetti. The city is comprised of buildings for manufacturing, administration, social services and residential uses, reflecting the ideas of the Movimento Comunità (Community Movement) which was founded in Ivrea in 1947 based on Adriano Olivetti’s 1945 book l’Ordine politico delle Comunità (The Political Order of Communities). The industrial city of Ivrea therefore represents a significant example of 20th century theories of urban development and architecture in response to industrial and social transformations, including the transition from mechanical to digital industries.

Criterion (iv): The industrial city of Ivrea is an ensemble of outstanding architectural quality that represents the work of Italian modernist designers and architects and demonstrates an exceptional example of 20th century developments in the design of production, taking into account changing industrial and social needs. Ivrea represents one of the first and highest expressions of a modern vision in relation to production, architectural design and social aspects at a global scale in relation to the history of industrial construction, and the transition from mechanical to digitalised industrial technologies.

The attributes of the property are: the spatial plan of the industrial city, the public buildings and spaces, and residential buildings developed by Olivetti (including their extant interior elements). The influences of the Community Movement on the provision of buildings for residential and social purposes is an important intangible element, although the functions of most non-residential buildings have ceased.

Integrity

The integrity of this urban area is based on the inclusion of the buildings, spaces and urban form required to convey the significance of Ivrea’s 20th century development. The state of conservation of the city’s components is variable. Many of the residential buildings exhibit a good/adequate state of conservation. However, the integrity of the property is considered to be vulnerable due to many factors and pressures including the encroachment of new urban developments, the deteriorating condition of some key industrial buildings and building interiors, the existence of some visually intrusive new constructions inside the property boundary and its buffer zone, and loss of the original activities and purposes due to the decline in manufacturing. The high number of vacant buildings and the need to find new uses also contribute to Ivrea’s vulnerable integrity.

Authenticity

The authenticity of Ivrea is based on the high number and quality of urban and architectural projects that date to the primary period of Ivrea’s development as an industrial city. A detailed analysis of the individual components in terms of their form, design and materials, and their location and immediate environment has been undertaken, and many elements have maintained their original characteristics in spite of the changes to production that affected the city during the last two decades. While many residential, administrative and services buildings are intact, others have been renovated; and a large number of the buildings are currently vacant, with an uncertain future. There is a risk of gradual loss of the authenticity of the property due to large-scale refurbishment proposals, decay of the exterior finishing of the facades and deterioration of the interior decoration and detailing. Efforts have been made to develop new uses that are similar in type to their original uses (such as telecommunications, production or cultural activities).

Protection and management requirements

Ivrea is protected according to legislative regimes at the national, regional and local levels. These include the national Cultural Heritage and Landscape Code (revised in 2004); the Regional Landscape and Cultural Heritage Code and the Regional Landscape Plan (2015); and the Ivrea Land Use Plan (2006). National protection for Ivrea is in place only for some buildings, and is still to be completed. The system of legal protection is complex and multi-tiered, with a heavy reliance on the commitment, resources and expertise of both national and municipal authorities. Improved streamlining and coordination between the local, regional and national institutions is needed. The protection of the visual integrity of the property and its buffer zone will be strengthened by the adoption by Ivrea Council of the regulation of the regional landscape plan, integrating the guidelines and prescriptions directly relating to the protection, safeguard and enhancement of the property into the municipal regulations by October 2019. The municipal technical service department directly responds to proposed projects and grants authorisations, taking account of national, regional and local designations for buildings and landscape (for the buffer zone).

Challenges to the long-term conservation of the Outstanding Universal Value of Ivrea arise in relation to the resourcing of conservation and the need for new uses throughout the city’s elements. 44% of the former industrial and corporate buildings of the property are vacant or underused, and there are short-term needs for maintenance strategies. Engagement with residents and other users is an ongoing priority. Currently visitor levels are low, and there are plans to increase tourism capacity.

The Management Plan was updated in September 2017, and outlines a number of short and longer-term Action Plans for protection, conservation and documentation; capacity building; communication and education; and presentation. The management system includes a Steering Committee chaired by the Mayor; Technical Advisory Boards appointed by the Steering Committee; and the Site Coordinator. The General Secretary of the Municipality of Ivrea is the operating representative who coordinates all the municipal departments involved in the delivery of the actions in the management plan. The Municipality of Banchette has signed a Memorandum of Understanding to implement the Management Plan in relation to the small area occurring within its boundaries.