Capacity Building
Credibility of the World Heritage ...
Inscriptions on the World Heritage ...
International Assistance
List of World Heritage in Danger
Operational Guidelines
Outstanding Universal Value
Periodic Reporting
Reinforced Monitoring
Tentative Lists
Working methods and tools
World Heritage Convention

Decision 45 COM 7B.169
Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (Pakistan) (C 138)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/23/45.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7B.77 adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),
  3. Notes with great concern the damage suffered by several parts of the property following the exceptionally heavy rain of August 2022 and commends the great efforts deployed by the management authority to cope with the most urgent needs for consolidation of these affected segments;
  4. Expresses its appreciation for UNESCO’s two emergency missions funded by Emergency International Assistance under the World Heritage Fund to the property in October 2022 and January 2023, as well as the support through the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund (HEF) to integrate evaluation on culture and heritage into the Post-Disaster Need Assessment (PDNA) of Pakistan after the August 2022 monsoon;
  5. Takes note of the analysis provided by the State Party based on UNESCO’s abovementioned two emergency missions, and requests the State Party to consider their recommendations and pursue its efforts, in particular for the followings:
    1. Completion of the overall condition assessments of the property with maps by quarters and by damage and risk item to plan prioritized actions,
    2. Continuation of the short-term conservation actions to cope with the most vulnerable and damaged parts of the property where quick deterioration is suspected,
    3. Research to deepen the understanding of major causes of deterioration, such as water stagnation, capillary action salinity and ground water effects on the foundations, as well as to improve conservation materials,
    4. Elaboration of a full technical proposal, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and designated expert(s) to launch an international appeal and to secure funds for a multi-annual preservation project to cope with short-, medium- and long-term conservation needs, to review and update the existing management and conservation tools, as well as to establish a management plan to strengthen emergency response and preparedness to the multiple effects of climate change and extreme natural hazards,
    5. Provision of necessary human resources and workforce to cope with the immediate preservation needs as well as with the longer-term conservation actions as necessary;
  6. Requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission to assess the overall state of conservation of the property, review the overall management and conservation framework, assist in elaborating and updating the necessary management and conservation tools, and review the efficacy and appropriateness of emergency measures applied following the flooding emergency;
  7. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2024, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session.
Decision Code
45 COM 7B.169
States Parties 1
State of conservation reports
2023 Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro
Context of Decision