Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 2002
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger 2002-present
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Proposed in the draft Decision.
Corrective measures identified
Proposed in the draft Decision
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measuresProposed in the draft Decision.
Previous Committee Decisions see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 20,000
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
USD 800,000 provided by the Government of Italy for the “Emergency Consolidation and Restoration of the Minaret of Jam and Monuments in Herat” and USD 138,000 by the Government of Switzerland for the “Emergency Consolidation and Restoration of the Minaret of Jam”. These projects are currently being implemented.
Previous monitoring missions
No reactive monitoring mission as such, but UNESCO expert missions sent every year since 2002 in order to implement the operational project for the property.
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Political instability;
b) Inclination of the Minaret;
c) Local infrastructural requirements;
d) Lack of management plan.
Illustrative material see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2007
The State Party submitted a brief progress report to the World Heritage Centre on 8 February 2007. It describes the successful implementation of consolidation measures at the base of the Minaret through masonry work in July/August 2006. This activity, carried out within the UNESCO World Heritage Centre Funds-in-Trust projects financed by the Governments of Italy and Switzerland, in co-operation with staff of the Afghan Ministry of Information and Culture and UNESCO experts, provided important training and capacity-building to a team of Afghan conservation experts and site workers.This first intermediate step is essentialfor the future long-term stabilisation and safeguarding of the Minaret. In addition, monitoring of the Minaret was carried out through topographic measurements. It brought the positive result that in the years 2002 to 2006, no further inclination of the Minaret has occurred. In summer 2007, a soil investigation will be carried out, whose results will enable the World Heritage Centre to decide on the long-term consolidation measures needed.
In addition, following the UNESCO mission in February 2004, the World Heritage Committee had recommended the construction of a footbridge and a ford across the Hari River, in order to facilitate villagers’ access from the Bedam Valley to the Jam Valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river. At present, the State Party has not yet implemented this recommendation.
In response to the request of the Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006), the relevant Afghan authorities, ICOMOS and UNESCO held joint discussions to define the benchmarks for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Given that on-site expert mission reports in 2006 provided sufficient information on the state of conservation to guide and direct future actions, it was agreed that a Reactive monitoring mission was not essential to reassess the state of conservation of the property or to set the benchmarks.
Afghanistan continues to be confronted by challenges resulting from the country’s post-conflict situation, including the highly instable security situation, lack of national technical and institutional capacity, and extreme poverty. The benchmarks defined take into account this reality, and are proposed in the draft Decision, altogether with the relevant corrective measures identified.
As for the targeted timeframe, a minimum of four years has been agreed as necessary to address the benchmarks and mitigate the threats to the state of conservation of the property, i.e 2011. A detailed action plan was developed in 2006 within the framework of the UNESCO/Italy FIT project for the emergency stabilisation of the Minaret of Jam, in close co-operation between the Afghan authorities, ICOMOS and the World Heritage Centre.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM
Decision Adopted: 31 COM 7A.20
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7A,
2. Recalling its Decision 30 COM 7A.22, adopted at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006),
3. Notes the efforts made by the State Party and the international community for the safeguarding of this property and the important progress achieved in the consolidation of the Minaret of Jam in 2006;
4. Reiterates its strong encouragement to the State Party to construct a footbridge and a ford across the Hari River, in order to facilitate villagers' access from the Bedam Valley to the Jam Valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river, as set out in the recommendations of the UNESCO mission in February 2004;
5. Adopts the following as the desired state of conservation for the property in view of its future removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger:
a) Increased capacity of the staff of the Afghan Ministry of Culture and Information in charge of the preservation of the property ensured;
b) Precisely identified World Heritage property and clearly marked boundaries and buffer zones;
c) Long-term stability and conservation of the Minaret of Jam ensured;
d) Site security ensured;
e) A comprehensive management system including a long-term conservation policy developed and implemented.
6. Encourages the State Party to implement the following corrective measures for:
a) Development of adequate capacity of the staff of the Afghan Ministry of Culture and Information in charge of the preservation of the property by developing and implementing an adequate training programme in conservation and management;
b) Precise identification of the World Heritage property and clearly marked boundaries and buffer zones by:
(i) Undertaking topographic and archaeological surface surveys and re-defining core and buffer zones, as well as identifying zones affected by illicit excavations;
(ii) Marking of the core zone as "World Heritage protected area";
(iii) Officially revising the boundaries of the World Heritage property according to the results of the relevant surveys in order to complement the already identified Outstanding Universal Value.
c) Long-term consolidation and conservation of the Minaret of Jam and the archaeological remains by:
(i) Completing the documentation and recording of the Minaret and the archaeological remains;
(ii) Undertaking soil investigation in the vicinity of the monument in order to obtain information on the cause of the inclination of the Minaret and to define the long-term consolidation measures;
(iii) Regular and systematic monitoring of the Minaret's inclination;
(iv) Establishing a full inventory of decoration including digitalisation and reference system for all eight sides of the base of the Minaret;
(v) Implementing emergency restoration of the surface decoration of the Minaret.
(d) Ensured site security by:
(i) Exerting strict control of illicit excavations and protecting the site against looting, notably through hiring of adequate number of trained site guards;
(ii) Implementing measures enforcing the 2004 Preservation Law for Cultural and Historical Monuments ensured.
(e) Development and implementation of management system by undertaking appropriate training for the staff of the Ministry of Information and Culture in charge of the property;
7. Invites the international community, in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre, to continue its technical and financial support, in particular to achieve the above indicated desired state of conservation;
8. Requests the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS, to develop a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value including the conditions of integrity and authenticity, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;
9. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2008 a progress report on the implementation of corrective measures, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008; and
10. Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 31 COM 8C.2
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-07/31.COM/7A and WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.3),
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: