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Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam

Afghanistan
Factors affecting the property in 2007*
  • Civil unrest
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Inclination of the Minaret

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Political instability;

b) Inclination of the Minaret;

c) Local infrastructural requirements;

d) Lack of management plan.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Lack of legal protection;
  • Lack of an effective monuments protection agency;
  • Lack of adequate protection and conservation personnel;
  • Lack of a comprehensive management plan.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Proposed in the draft Decision.

Corrective Measures for the property

Proposed in the draft Decision

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Proposed in the draft Decision.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2007

USD 800,000 provided by the Government of Italy for the “Emergency Consolidation and Restoration of the Minaret of Jam and Monuments in Herat” and USD 138,000 by the Government of Switzerland for the “Emergency Consolidation and Restoration of the Minaret of Jam”. These projects are currently being implemented.

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2007
Requests approved: 1 (from 2002-2002)
Total amount approved : 20,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2007**

No reactive monitoring mission as such, but UNESCO expert missions sent every year since 2002 in order to implement the operational project for the property.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2007

The State Party submitted a brief progress report to the World Heritage Centre on 8 February 2007. It describes the successful implementation of consolidation measures at the base of the Minaret through masonry work in July/August 2006. This activity, carried out within the UNESCO World Heritage Centre Funds-in-Trust projects financed by the Governments of Italy and Switzerland, in co-operation with staff of the Afghan Ministry of Information and Culture and UNESCO experts, provided important training and capacity-building to a team of Afghan conservation experts and site workers.This first intermediate step is essentialfor the future long-term stabilisation and safeguarding of the Minaret. In addition, monitoring of the Minaret was carried out through topographic measurements. It brought the positive result that in the years 2002 to 2006, no further inclination of the Minaret has occurred. In summer 2007, a soil investigation will be carried out, whose results will enable the World Heritage Centre to decide on the long-term consolidation measures needed.

In addition, following the UNESCO mission in February 2004, the World Heritage Committee had recommended the construction of a footbridge and a ford across the Hari River, in order to facilitate villagers’ access from the Bedam Valley to the Jam Valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river. At present, the State Party has not yet implemented this recommendation.

In response to the request of the Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006), the relevant Afghan authorities, ICOMOS and UNESCO held joint discussions to define the benchmarks for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Given that on-site expert mission reports in 2006 provided sufficient information on the state of conservation to guide and direct future actions, it was agreed that a Reactive monitoring mission was not essential to reassess the state of conservation of the property or to set the benchmarks.

Afghanistan continues to be confronted by challenges resulting from the country’s post-conflict situation, including the highly instable security situation, lack of national technical and institutional capacity, and extreme poverty. The benchmarks defined take into account this reality, and are proposed in the draft Decision, altogether with the relevant corrective measures identified.

As for the targeted timeframe, a minimum of four years has been agreed as necessary to address the benchmarks and mitigate the threats to the state of conservation of the property, i.e 2011. A detailed action plan was developed in 2006 within the framework of the UNESCO/Italy FIT project for the emergency stabilisation of the Minaret of Jam, in close co-operation between the Afghan authorities, ICOMOS and the World Heritage Centre.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2007
31 COM 7A.20
Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) (C 211 rev)
 

The World Heritage Committee,

1.       Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7A,

2.       Recalling its Decision 30 COM 7A.22, adopted at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006),

3.       Notes the efforts made by the State Party and the international community for the safeguarding of this property and the important progress achieved in the consolidation of the Minaret of Jam in 2006;

4.       Reiterates its strong encouragement to the State Party to construct a footbridge and a ford across the Hari River, in order to facilitate villagers' access from the Bedam Valley to the Jam Valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river, as set out in the recommendations of the UNESCO mission in February 2004;

5.       Adopts the following as the desired state of conservation for the property in view of its future removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger:

a)      Increased capacity of the staff of the Afghan Ministry of Culture and Information in charge of the preservation of the property ensured;

b)      Precisely identified World Heritage property and clearly marked boundaries and buffer zones;

c)      Long-term stability and conservation of the Minaret of Jam ensured;

d)      Site security ensured;

e)      A comprehensive management system including a long-term conservation policy developed and implemented.

6.       Encourages the State Party to implement the following corrective measures for:

a)      Development of adequate capacity of the staff of the Afghan Ministry of Culture and Information in charge of the preservation of the property by developing and implementing an adequate training programme in conservation and management;

b)      Precise identification of the World Heritage property and clearly marked boundaries and buffer zones by:

(i)      Undertaking topographic and archaeological surface surveys and re-defining core and buffer zones, as well as identifying zones affected by illicit excavations;

(ii)      Marking of the core zone as "World Heritage protected area";

(iii)     Officially revising the boundaries of the World Heritage property according to the results of the relevant surveys in order to complement the already identified Outstanding Universal Value.

c)      Long-term consolidation and conservation of the Minaret of Jam and the archaeological remains by:

(i)      Completing the documentation and recording of the Minaret and the archaeological remains;

(ii)      Undertaking soil investigation in the vicinity of the monument in order to obtain information on the cause of the inclination of the Minaret and to define the long-term consolidation measures;

(iii)     Regular and systematic monitoring of the Minaret's inclination;

(iv)     Establishing a full inventory of decoration including digitalisation and reference system for all eight sides of the base of the Minaret;

(v)     Implementing emergency restoration of the surface decoration of the Minaret.

(d)     Ensured site security by:

(i)      Exerting strict control of illicit excavations and protecting the site against looting, notably through hiring of adequate number of trained site guards;

(ii)      Implementing measures enforcing the 2004 Preservation Law for Cultural and Historical Monuments ensured.

(e)     Development and implementation of management system by undertaking appropriate training for the staff of the Ministry of Information and Culture in charge of the property;

7.       Invites the international community, in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre, to continue its technical and financial support, in particular to achieve the above indicated desired state of conservation;

8.       Requests the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS, to develop a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value including the conditions of integrity and authenticity, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;

9.       Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2008 a progress report on the implementation of corrective measures, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008; and

10.     Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

31 COM 8C.2
Update of the list of the World Heritage in danger - maintenance

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-07/31.COM/7A and WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.3),

2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 31 COM 7A.20)
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley, (Decision 31 COM 7A.21)
  • Azerbaijan, Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower (Decision 31 COM 7A.26)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 31 COM 7A.29)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 31 COM 7A.3)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Virunga National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.4)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.5)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Garamba National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Salonga National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 31 COM 7A.8)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 31 COM 7A.16)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.9)
  • Germany, Dresden Elbe Valley (Decision 31 COM 7A.27)
  • India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 31 COM 7A.11)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 31 COM 7A.22)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 31 COM 7A.17)
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 31 COM 7A.18)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 31 COM 7A.10)
  • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 31 COM 7A.24)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 31 COM 7A.30)
  • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 31 COM 7A.25)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 31 COM 7A.28)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 31 COM 7A.15)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 31 COM 7A.31)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 31 COM 7A.19)
Draft Decision: 31 COM 7A.20

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7A,

2. Recalling its Decision 30 COM 7A.22, adopted at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006),

3. Notes the efforts made by the State Party and the international community for the safeguarding of this property and the important progress achieved in the consolidation of the Minaret of Jam in 2006;

4. Reiterates its strong encouragement to the State Party to construct a footbridge and a ford across the Hari River, in order to facilitate villagers’ access from the Bedam Valley to the Jam Valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river, as set out in the recommendations of the UNESCO mission in February 2004;

5. Adopts the benchmarks for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger as follows:

a) Increased capacity of the staff of the Afghan Ministry of Culture and Information in charge of the preservation of the property ensured;

b) Precisely identified World Heritage property and clearly marked boundaries and buffer zones;

c) Long-term stability and conservation of the Minaret of Jam ensured;

d) Site security ensured;

e) A comprehensive management system including a long-term conservation policy developed and implemented.

6. Encourages the State Party to implement the following corrective measures for:

a) Development of adequate capacity of the staff of the Afghan Ministry of Culture and Information in charge of the preservation of the property by developing and implementing an adequate training programme in conservation and management;

b) Precise identification of the World Heritage property and clearly marked boundaries and buffer zones by:

(i) Undertaking topographic and archaeological surface surveys and re-defining core and buffer zones, as well as identifying zones affected by illicit excavations;

(ii) Marking of the core zone as “World Heritage protected area”;

(iii) Officially revising the boundaries of the World Heritage property according to the results of the relevant surveys in order to complement the already identified Outstanding Universal Value.

c) Long-term consolidation and conservation of the Minaret of Jam and the archaeological remains by:

(i) Completing the documentation and recording of the Minaret and the archaeological remains;

(ii) Undertaking soil investigation in the vicinity of the monument in order to obtain information on the cause of the inclination of the Minaret and to define the long-term consolidation measures;

(iii) Regular and systematic monitoring of the Minaret’s inclination;

(iv) Establishing a full inventory of decoration including digitalisation and reference system for all eight sides of the base of the Minaret;

(v) Implementing emergency restoration of the surface decoration of the Minaret.

d) Ensured site security by:

(i) Exerting strict control of illicit excavations and protecting the site against looting, notably through hiring of adequate number of trained site guards;

(ii) Implementing measures enforcing the 2004 Preservation Law for Cultural and Historical Monuments ensured.

e) Development and implementation of management system by undertaking appropriate training for the staff of the Ministry of Information and Culture in charge of the property;

7. Invites the international community, in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre, to continue its technical and financial support, in particular to meet the above benchmarks;

8. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2008 a progress reporton the implementation of corrective measures, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008; and

9. Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Report year: 2007
Afghanistan
Date of Inscription: 2002
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 2002-present
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 31COM (2007)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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