1.         Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (Bolivia (Plurinational State of)) (C 567rev)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  2000

Criteria  (iii)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1995-1995)
Total amount approved: USD 4,000
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: USD 870,000 (2008-2011, Japanese Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) project) 

Previous monitoring missions

August 2002: UNESCO and international experts mission; November 2007: World Heritage Centre mission 

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2008

With the aim of making an evaluation of the state of the property and identifying priorities for future projects, the Government of Japan, at the invitation of the State Party, sent an exploratory mission in August 2002, which included Japanese and international experts, as well as representatives from UNESCO and the Bolivian authorities. A mission for the preparation of the project document for the Japan Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) took place in November 2007, with the participation of the World Heritage Centre and national and international experts.

This mission noted that updating the management and conservation plans was extremely urgent in order to guarantee appropriate conservation of the property. Due to limited capacities, conservation techniques and archaeological research activities are not always implemented to international standards. There is an evident need to precisely define regulations for the conservation and preservation of the main archaeological complex and the site museum. Currently, the construction of new laboratories and facilities for archaeologists are being carried out.

The mission also highlighted that the Tiwanaku communities are aware of the value of the property and are very interested in collaborating in its conservation and preservation. All projects and decisions concerning exploration and conservation of the property are made in close collaboration with the Comité Interinstitucional para la Gestión de Tiwanaku (CIACSAT), a consortium of seven organizations involved and related to Tiwanaku at the national, regional and local levels. The organization includes: the Vice-Ministry of Culture, Vice-Ministry of Tourism, the Prefecture of La Paz, the Municipality of Tiwanaku, the Central Agraria (agriculturist association), Junta de Vecinos (residents association of the town of Tiwanaku) and the National Archaeology Unit (UNAR) at the technical level. Indigenous communities of the surrounding areas are represented as well.

The 2002 mission recognized the need for a buffer zone. Little progress has been made in this matter due to land tenure problems. To date, the Bolivian Government is the owner of the 71 ha property, but the total archaeological area extends to approximately 600 ha.

The town of Tiwanaku, which is located just beside the property, has not been properly monitored or regulated in terms of its growth and development for its impact on the outstanding universal value of the property. The Municipal Government explained that a cadastral mapping of the town is in progress as well as a project for the elaboration of a Land Use Regulation Plan, however, no clear explanation of its content nor any definition concerning environmental policies has been made. More coordination between the Vice-Ministry of Culture/UNAR and institutions such as universities and researchers is urgently needed to identify proper intervention mechanisms at an international standard level.

In March 2008, a total budget of USD 870,000 (JFIT) was approved for a three-year project for the “Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” for the following main activities:

a) Update and implement the management and conservation plans including the archaeological complex of Tiwanaku;

b) Promote more efficient support and coordinated participation of local communities;

c) Develop conservation methodologies for the excavated and exposed areas;

d) Document and conserve excavation materials; publish results;

e) Ensure appropriate museum management;

f) Train staff and community members in conservation and excavation techniques;

g) Strengthen efforts for sustainable development in local communities;

h) Promote understanding and awareness among local inhabitants of the outstanding universal value of the property;

i) Develop national capacities for the conservation of cultural heritage.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM


Decision Adopted: 32 COM 7B.119

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-08/32.COM/7B,

2. Notes with satisfaction the approval of a three year "Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid" to be implemented at the property;

3. Requests the State Party to develop, in consultation with the Advisory Bodies, as soon as possible, appropriate guidance and regulations for archaeological interventions in accordance with international standards;

4. Also requests the State Party to work in close collaboration with the World Heritage Centre and the UNESCO Quito Office to implement the activities foreseen in the management and conservation plans;

5. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2010, a report on the updated management and conservation plans and other aspects related to the preservation and conservation project, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session in 2010.