Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 1978
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger 1996-present
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective measures identified
The following corrective measures were identified by the 2006 World Heritage Centre / IUCN mission and adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006):
b) Gazette the new park boundaries, including the extensions of Lemalimo, Mesarerya, the Silki Yared – Kiddis Yared Mountains and the Ras Dejen Mountain, as well as the realignment of the boundary to exclude certain villages;
c) Develop a strategy and action plan, as part of the planned management plan revision, to significantly reduce the impact of livestock grazing on the conservation of the property by introducing no grazing and limited grazing zones based on ecological criteria, and by setting up a strict management regime in zones where grazing will still be tolerated in the short to medium term, and secure funding for its implementation;
d) Develop a strategy and action plan, as part of the planned management plan revision to support the development of alternative livelihoods for the people living within the park as well as its immediate vicinity, in order to limit in the medium term their impact on the natural resources of the property, and secure funding for its implementation.
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measuresNo precise timeframe was set so far although the World Heritage Committee mentioned that the corrective measures could be implemented in the short term (1-2 years).
Previous Committee Decisions see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/9/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 293,171
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/9/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Previous monitoring missions
2001 and 2006: World Heritage Centre / IUCN monitoring missions
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Declining populations of Walia ibex, Ethiopian wolf and other large mammal species;
b) Increasing human populations and livestock numbers in the park;
c) Agricultural encroachment;
d) Road construction.
Illustrative material see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/9/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2008
A detailed report was received from the State Party on 16 January 2008, with information on the implementation status of the corrective measures and on the implementation of other recommendations of the 2006 mission.
On 12 May 2008, the World Heritage Centre received a letter from the State Party requesting a postponement of the monitoring mission requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007). The letter states that although there is progress in the implementation of the corrective measures, lots of work remains to be done and the State Party therefore considers it premature for a monitoring mission to visit the property.
The report and the letter present the following information concerning the implementation of the corrective measures:
a) Finalize the extension of SMNP with the interlinking corridors
The report mentions that the extension to include the Silki Yared – Kiddis Yared Mountains and the Ras Dejen Mountain has now been demarcated in the field, with over 300 beacons being erected. Local communities and village elders as well as the local authorities were directly involved in the process. However, the relocation of the Arquazye village, which is located in the corridor connecting the extension to the property, has not yet started. The 2006 mission noted the importance of the corridor for the integrity of the extended national park. So far, a steering committee, which includes all stakeholders and a task force with relevant local authorities, has been established, a database with detailed information on the 130 people living in the village created and an alternative location 5 km away from the current location identified. The State Party submitted a request for International Assistance to support this process, which is currently being processed. It is expected that the relocation can be completed before the 33rd session of the World Heritage Committee in 2009, if funds can be made available in time.
b) Re-gazettment of the new park boundaries
The newly proposed boundaries for the National Park, including the realignment and the two extensions, have been described in detail, using GPS coordinates, and maps have been produced. A re-gazettment proclamation has been drafted but still needs to be submitted to the regional government for approval before it can be submitted to the national parliament.
c) Develop a strategy and action plan to significantly reduce the impact of livestock grazing on the conservation of the property and secure funding for its implementation
A draft strategy to reduce grazing pressure in the park was submitted to the World Heritage Centre in September 2008. The document includes a detailed analysis of livestock husbandry practices in and around the park, food availability and stocking rates. The strategy itself is composed of five components:
i) Introduction of a zoning system with areas in which grazing will no longer be tolerated in the ecologically most sensitive parts of the park and with controlled or limited grazing areas,
ii) Introduction of optimum stocking rates for the controlled grazing zones and the restriction of access to these zones to eligible users of the local communities,
iii) Reduction of livestock numbers through the introduction of more intensive livestock systems with feed production,
iv) Improvement of animal health care and veterinary services, and
v) Improvement of the cooperation between the park and communities to address conflicts.
The strategy also includes a proposal for a 3 year action plan for implementation. The total cost to implement the strategy is estimated at more than USD 11 million. The main challenge now is to mobilize this funding. The strategy will also be included in the management plan, which is currently under preparation (see below).
d) Develop a strategy and action plan to support the development of alternative livelihoods for the people living within the park as well as its immediate vicinity and secure funding for its implementation
As mentioned in last year’s report, a detailed and comprehensive proposal for an alternative livelihood project was developed with financial support from the World Heritage Fund. The cost of implementation of the project is estimated at USD 8.7 million. Implementation of the project has not yet started, due to lack of funding.
The State Party report further provides information on progress in implementing some of the other recommendations of the 2006 mission.
On the Bwahit – Dilyibza road, the report confirms that after the conclusion of the technical design studies and the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the alternative route through the valleys outside the proposed extension has been approved. The report also notes the efforts to mitigate the impact of the Debark – Mekane Birhan road which is crossing the park, in particular measures to control soil erosion and the closure of the road to traffic at night. In addition, the regional government has in principle approved the opening of a new road from Debark to Mekeneberhan, which would provide a shorter alternative for much of the traffic currently using the road through the park and could greatly reduce its impact on the property. However, funding still needs to be mobilized to realize this project.
On 4 May 2008, a new draft of the management plan was submitted to the World Heritage Centre. This new draft was prepared with financial assistance from the World Heritage Fund and with technical assistance from Frankfurt Zoological Society. The management plan presents a 10 year vision for the park and a detailed action plan for the first 3 years of its implementation. At the time of preparation of this report, the World Heritage Centre and IUCN had not yet been able to review the new draft but comments will be provided to the State Party as soon as possible. It is expected that the management plan will be finalized in the coming months.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN received information that the property has now been brought back under the direct control of the central government. No reference is made to this in the State Party report and it is unclear what the impact on the management of the property will be.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN consider that the State Party has made progress in the implementation of the corrective measures and other recommendations of the 2006 monitoring mission. Important strategies and planning documents are currently being finalized and the major challenge ahead is to start their implementation as soon as possible, in order to address the remaining key threats, namely the grazing pressure and the impacts of the communities remaining in the property. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN support the assessment expressed by the State Party in its letter of 12 May 2008 that it is difficult to solve these long standing issues in a short timeframe and that the monitoring mission should be postponed for a year. As funding is currently the main bottleneck, it is proposed that a donor conference be organized by the State Party to mobilize the necessary resources. The Austrian Development Cooperation, which has provided substantial support for the management of the property in the past is also reported to support a new “livestock programme” for the wider North Gonder Zone, which will include the property but it is not clear how far that project can contribute to the implementation of the strategy to reduce grazing pressure in the property. As part of its report, the State Party also submitted initial drafts of a revised Statement of outstanding universal value and Desired state of conservation. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN propose that these drafts will be reviewed before the planned monitoring mission and discussed during the mission. The Desired state of conservation is required to provide a clear basis to decide on the potential removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre and IUCN
Decision Adopted: 32 COM 7A.9
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-08/32.COM/7A.Add,
2. Recalling Decision 31 COM 7A.9, adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007),
3. Notes the request of the State Party to postpone the monitoring mission requested at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007) to allow for more time to implement the corrective measures;
4. Requests the State Party to continue to implement the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006) and, in particular, to mobilize the necessary funding for and start the implementation of the management plan, which includes the strategy to address the grazing pressure and the alternative livelihoods project, as soon as it is finalized;
5. Calls upon the international community to financially support the implementation of the management plan and encourages the State Party to organize a donor conference with the assistance of the World Heritage Centre, the UNESCO Office in Addis Abeba and IUCN to identify potential donors and funding. The State Party might want to apply for assistance from the World Heritage Fund to organize this conference;
6. Takes note of the initial draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value and Desired state of conservation prepared by the State Party and requests the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies to assist the State Party in finalizing them;
7. Also requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN mission to the property to assess its state of conservation and progress in the implementation of the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006) in view of a possible removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2009, a detailed report on the state of conservation of the property and progress in the implementation of the corrective measures and the other recommendations of the 2006 monitoring mission, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 33rd session in 2009;
9. Decides to retain Simien National Park (Ethiopia) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.