1.         Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (Bolivia (Plurinational State of)) (C 567rev)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  2000

Criteria  (iii)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1995-1995)
Total amount approved: USD 4,000
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount granted: USD 870,000 for the project “Preservation and Conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” (UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust for World Heritage), finalized in 2018

Previous monitoring missions

August 2002: Experts Mission; November 2007: World Heritage Centre Preparatory mission; February-March 2009: World Heritage Centre Technical mission for the implementation of the JFIT project; November 2009: World Heritage Centre/UNESCO Quito Office Monitoring mission; November 2010: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; August 2012: World Heritage Centre mission; April 2014: ICOMOS Advisory mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2023

On 1 February 2023, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents/. Progress in a number of conservation issues addressed by the Committee at its previous sessions is presented in this report, as follows:

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The commitment of the State Party to implement the decisions of the World Heritage Committee and the recommendations of the Advisory Bodies concerning the Management Plan and the Integral Conservation Plan, is welcomed. It is noted that the Risk Management Plan is under preparation and the State Party should be invited to submit the plan for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, as soon as it becomes available.

It is understood that no new archaeological zone will be opened, and that priority will be given to conservation activities.

It is appreciated that CIAAAT has signed an agreement with the IGM to review the boundaries of the property and the buffer zone. However, it remains unclear what the timeframe and the possible new limits of the buffer zone will be. In the meantime, it is of great concern that the regulations for the 100-meter buffer zone establish a rather substantial area designated for the construction of housing, and that no definition of village expansion and urban and rural areas has been achieved. It is considered essential that CIAAAT and the municipality of Tiwanaku agree upon cooperation and coordination mechanisms that will define urban and rural areas and will ensure the proper regulation, control, and use of the present and future buffer zone. It is recommended that the Committee reiterate its grave concerns about this matter.

The continued collaboration of CIAAAT with the local authorities and communities in awareness raising, waste management and heritage-based economic activities, among others, is highly appreciated. Equally, CIAAT should be commended for the measures it has taken for the maintenance of museum, storage and conservation facilities and the preparation of manuals and regulations that will guide the conservation, tourism, and other activities at the property.

It is noted that the full implementation of the management and conservation plans will require additional human and financial resources, which may not be available in the State Party. The State Party could be invited to review the funding mechanisms for CIAAAT and explore further international cooperation.

Decision Adopted: 45 COM 7B.107

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/23/45.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 44 COM 7B.63 adopted at its extended 44th session (Fuzhou/online, 2021),
  3. Welcomes the commitment of the State Party to implement the decisions of the World Heritage Committee and the recommendations of the Advisory Bodies; as well as the assurance of the State Party that priority will be given to conservation actions over the opening of new excavation zones;
  4. Requests the State Party to submit the Risk Management Plan to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, as soon as it becomes available;
  5. Appreciates that the management authority of the property (CIAAAT) signed an agreement with the Military Geographic Institute (IGM) to confirm the boundaries of the World Heritage property and the buffer zone;
  6. Reiterates, however, its concern that the actual arrangements for the zoning and control of the buffer zone do not guarantee its adequate protection and management, particularly in view of the urban pressure of the village of Tiwanaku and urges the State Party to:
    1. Proceed as a matter of priority with the mapping of the boundaries of the property and the buffer zone by the IGM,
    2. Define urban and rural zones and assess the implications of such designation on the conservation and management of the property and the buffer zone,
    3. Strengthen, to the extent possible, the authority of CIAAAT over the buffer zone and proceed with the necessary arrangements with the municipality of Tiwanaku, to agree on the regulations for the use and control of the buffer zone,
    4. Proceed urgently with the extension of the buffer zone and the submission of a formal Minor Boundary Modification request, as per Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines;
  7. Expresses its appreciation for the collaboration and communication with the local authorities and communities, the maintenance activities and the preparation of manuals and regulations for the adequate conservation and use of the property;
  8. Invites the State Party to review the human and financial resources that will be required for the full implementation of the management and conservation plans and explore additional resources and international cooperation for this purpose;
  9. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2024, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 47th session.