1.         Tyre (Lebanon) (C 299)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1984

Criteria  (iii)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/299/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1986-2001)
Total amount approved: USD 29,000
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/299/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount granted: USD 19,173 (1997-2001) for the International Safeguarding Campaign; USD 362,391 (2015-2017) from the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation through the Lebanese Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR); USD 320,673 from the Lebanese Government for capacity- building exercise

Previous monitoring missions

February 2004: Evaluation mission by the UNESCO Office in Beirut; September 2006: UNESCO mission following the 2006 summer conflict; February 2009: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; September 2012: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; February 2017: visit of the property by the World Heritage Centre; October 2018: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/299/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2023

On 23 December 2022, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/299/documents. Progress in a number of conservation issues addressed by the Committee at its previous sessions is presented in that report, as follows:

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies take note of the challenges currently faced by the State Party. The efforts of the Directorate General of Antiquities, in this economically challenging and socially difficult context, to improve the management of the property and work towards finalizing the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone during 2023 are highly commendable.

The State Party’s report however provides very little details, which makes an analysis of the actions undertaken difficult. The 2018 mission identified deficiencies in the management system, partly due to insufficient human resources, with a resultant lack of maintenance on the entire property. Reported progress indicates that measures have been taken to improve the staffing situation, but these would need to be substantiated with figures. The 2018 mission had identified the following as necessary actions:

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies recognize the challenges faced by the State Party following the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing national economic and social crisis. It is recommended that the Committee encourage the State Party to request international assistance to address these issues, including the development of a Management Plan and other management tools.

Decision Adopted: 45 COM 7B.145

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/23/45.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decisions 37 COM 8B.45, 39 COM 7B.54, 41 COM 7B.83, 43 COM 7B.50, and 44 COM 7B.132 adopted at its 37th (Phnom Penh, 2013), 39th (Bonn, 2015), 41st (Krakow, 2017), 43rd (Baku, 2019), and extended 44th (Fuzhou/online, 2021) sessions respectively,
  3. Acknowledges the submission of the State Party's report in light of the severe national economic crisis affecting all sectors and society as a whole;
  4. Encourages the State Party to implement the decisions adopted by the World Heritage Committee, in particular Decisions 39 COM 7B.54, 41 COM 7B.83, 43 COM 7B.50, and 44 COM 7B.132, and in line with the reporting requirements under the World Heritage Convention;
  5. Notes that the process towards creating a partial agreement between the primary stakeholders (Directorate General of Antiquities, Municipality of Tyre) for the creation of municipal parking within the archaeological zone have been paused due to the complex situation in the country, and also encourages the State Party to submit the details of this arrangement and design details, when available, for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies before taking any decisions on the matter;
  6. Also notes that the State Party is currently preparing a new Management Plan that includes provisions for a maritime protection zone to preserve the underwater archaeological remains, and reiterates its request to the State Party to submit as a priority the revised Management Plan for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies and to expedite completion and implementation of the Management Plan;
  7. Urges the State Party to continue its efforts to provide sufficient resources for the property to ensure regular maintenance in the long-term;
  8. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to implement the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission recommendations, with particular attention to establishing a comprehensive management strategy for the property that covers all aspects of documentation, conservation and monitoring, summarizing the knowledge on techniques and procedures in a manual, with an updated action plan, as a core component of the future management plan for the property, including:
    1. Defining approaches to improving current maintenance practices concerning vegetation, drainage and sewage control through appropriate preventive measures,
    2. Establishing principles of minimal intervention in the conservation of mosaics and structures as lessons learned from the pilot projects,
    3. Developing and implementing a monitoring protocol to be available for scientific conservation research and to enable evaluation of the efficacy of conservation measures,
    4. Developing and implementing a comprehensive presentation strategy for the property to reflect the actual understanding of its values as reflected in the various architectonic technologies and funerary practices of past generations, as well as conservation challenges,
    5. Considering integrating the Management Plan with regional and urban development and traffic-mobility plans to manage the development pressures in the long term;
  9. Further reiterates its request to the State Party to revise the proposed boundary of the property, identify a buffer zone and develop regulations and procedures for the protection of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property in accordance with Decision 37 COM 8B.45, and to submit a Minor Boundary Modification, in line with Paragraphs 107, 164 and Annex 11 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  10. Reiterates furthermore its request to the State Party to initiate an in-depth study of traffic and the urban road network, and to submit this study to the World Heritage Centre for examination by the Advisory Bodies, and reminds the State Party of the Committee’s invitation, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, to submit details for proposed road and infrastructure projects at the property, including Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA) for the Coastal Highway and other planned major infrastructure projects, to be conducted in accordance with the Guidance and Toolkit for Impact Assessments in a World Heritage Context;
  11. Further encourages the State Party to submit an International Assistance request to support efforts in the elaboration of needed management tools;
  12. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2024, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 47th session.