Take advantage of the search to browse through the World Heritage Centre information.

Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore

Pakistan
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Financial resources
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Housing
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Underground transport infrastructure
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Housing; Land conversion (Encroachments and urban pressure)
  • Management systems/management plan (Inadequate management mechanisms; lack of definition of boundaries of the Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens)
  • Legal framework (Incomplete legislation)
  • Financial resources (Lack of sufficient financial resources to implement management mechanisms)
  • Underground transport infrastructure
  • Ground transport infrastructure (Development of the Orange Line Metro - aerial portion of the line)
  • Demolition of two of the tanks and partial demolition of a third tank of the hydraulic works of the Shalamar Gardens (issue resolved)
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1290

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1290

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount provided to the property: USD 975,000, UNESCO/Norway Funds-in-Trust, UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust, Getty Foundation, Embassy of the United States of America in Pakistan

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 5 (from 1981-2000)
Total amount approved : 121,000 USD
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 28 January 2020, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, a summary of which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/171/documents/. The report provides the following information on how the State Party responded to the Committee’s previous decisions:

  • Selection of a consultant to advise on the implementation of the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission recommendations;
  • Implementation of the decision of the Honourable Supreme Court of Pakistan under the supervision of a high-level Special Committee of Experts, and establishment of a regulatory committee by the Directorate-General of Archaeology;
  • Conservation work already implemented and basic documentation of planned work;
  • Feasibility study for the mitigation options suggested by the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission;
  • Reduction of the speed of the Orange Line Metro (OLM) around the component site and monitoring of encroachment;
  • Plans for a multidisciplinary study to consider revised boundaries for the property, having regard to socio-economic impacts;
  • Comprehensive study of the Fort’s hydrology and drainage;
  • Proposals to optimize water drainage in order to preserve historical structures, with a particular focus on the Picture Wall;
  • Emergency stabilization of dilapidated Fort roofing;
  • Following the recommendations of the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission, completion of the restoration/conservation for the Aiwan/summer pavilion, historical gateway, wooden ceiling, and restoration of external waterways on the eastern side of the perimeter wall;
  • Planting of trees, which are expected to form a natural “mask” for the newly-constructed OLM.

The State Party has taken (or will take) the following actions to conserve the property:

  • Completion of the conservation of the western part of the Picture Wall;
  • Implementation of an improved drainage system for the entire Fort by 2021, with a temporary drainage system in place during the intervening monsoon season(s);
  • Conservation of the deteriorated Royal Kitchen, to be re-used as a night-time restaurant;
  • Restoration of monuments, such as Barood Khana, Musamman Gate, Western Suit (old resthouse) and a wooden bridge over the road from postern gate to Maidane-Dewan-e-Aam;
  • Initiation of a project to improve public facilities, including horticultural works at the Shalamar gardens;
  • Proposals to restore or conserve a number of monuments in 2020.

Through its report, the State Party also shared various technical studies.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

The State Party has made some progress in addressing the Committee’s previous decisions and some recommendations made by the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission, but regrettably has not actively engaged with the World Heritage Centre or ICOMOS, nor provided sufficient information about projects at the property, despite the provisions of Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines. In the absence of adequate prior consultation and engagement, the inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger may become necessary to provide a framework and process by which further threats and damage to the authenticity and integrity of the property may be prevented.

The progress achieved includes the establishment of a regulating committee to reinforce governance mechanisms through monitoring and inform decision-making processes. Technical studies on the possible impacts of the OLM project on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) were submitted, but without the benefit of vibrational analysis following the completion of the OLM project. It is recommended that the Committee acknowledge the State Party’s efforts to implement some mitigation measures following the construction of the OLM and to commission a comprehensive feasibility study for the other mitigation measures suggested by the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission, but regret that neither the World Heritage Centre nor ICOMOS have been consulted. The Committee may also urge the State Party to implement all of the recommendations of the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission and reiterate its request that detailed designs for the implementation of mitigation measures be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operation Guidelines, and that projects only proceed once positive feedback has been received.

Concerning the preservation of the Fort of Lahore, the efforts deployed for the prototype conservation project of the Picture Wall are noted, and the rest of the Fort should be conserved to an equally high technical standard. The comprehensive study on drainage and emergency roof waterproofing measures are welcomed, and it is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to inform the World Heritage Centre of its progress and monitoring efforts. All current and future technical restoration and documentation work should involve national staff, so that capacities for heritage conservation can be built and benefit the property and its conservation in the long term.

A number of proposed restoration projects may contribute to improving the general condition of historical monuments within the property, notably restoration work to Dewan-E-Khas, Shahjahani Khawabgah, Kala Burj, Lal Burj, Moti Masjid and Makatib Khana, Arzgah (Tile Mosaic Laboratory), Akbari Hammam, and inside Alamgiri Gate and Loh Mandar. However, the outline information provided about these projects does not allow to assess their potential impact on the property’s OUV, and more detailed information should be submitted to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines. The proposed re-use of the Royal Kitchen as a night-time restaurant raises concerns, as this use of the Fort complex would involve changes that may affect the property’s integrity and authenticity. It is therefore recommended that the Committee request a detailed technical proposal, to be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, and that no decision be made that may impact the OUV of the property and would be difficult to reverse, in line with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, before the Advisory Bodies have positively reviewed the proposal.

Concerning the overall management of the property, the recent Master Plan and the interdisciplinary study for a proposed boundary modification and buffer zone should be submitted for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7B.34
Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) (C 171)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decisions 42 COM 7B.14 and 43 COM 7B.72 adopted at its 42nd (Manama, 2018) and 43rd (Baku, 2019) sessions respectively,
  3. Takes note of the efforts made by the State Party to address the Committee’s previous requests and the recommendations formulated by the April 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission with regard to the protection and management of the property and the mitigation measures following the construction of the Orange Line Metro (OLM), and requests that the feasibility study for the remaining recommendations be conducted in close consultation with ICOMOS, and that its outcomes be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  4. Notes the creation by the Directorate-General for Archaeology of a Regulatory Committee for OLM-related operations and future projects, in an effort to enable informed decision-making processes, in compliance with the provisions of the Operational Guidelines;
  5. Also requests that the State Party work in close cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS to assess all OLM-related operations and future projects, in order to prevent any damage to the property’s OUV;
  6. Also takes note of the implementation of some of the recommendations formulated by the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission, further notes that for the remaining recommendations, the consultant engaged by the State Party will undertake detailed feasibility studies; further actions thereof will be taken in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies after the consultant’s findings become available, and also requests the State Party to involve the local community, according to national legislation, as an integral part of an informed decision-making process for the World Heritage property;
  7. Also notes that a number of restoration and/or conservation projects have been undertaken at both component sites of the property, following the recommendations of the 2018 mission, including the preservation of the property’s perimeter wall at the Lahore Fort, a prototype project for the west segment of the Picture Wall, and the restoration of the Royal Kitchen;
  8. Further requests that full details of any ongoing or future projects be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, including preservation and restoration works for Dewan-E-Khas, Shahjahani Khawabgah, Kala Burj, Lal Burj, Moti Masjid and Makatib Khana, Arzgah (Tile Mosaic Laboratory), Akbari Hammam, and inside Alamgiri Gate and Loh Mandar, as well as a details on the proposed re-use of the Royal Kitchen of Lahore Fort as a night-time restaurant, and that no irreversible decision be made before positive feedback has been received from the Advisory Bodies, and also urges the State Party to prioritise the safeguarding of the attributes of the property’s OUV, including the integrity and authenticity of Lahore Fort;
  9. Requests furthermore the State Party to officially submit the revised Master Plan of the property to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies, and also reiterates its request that the State Party submit to the World Heritage Centre a proposal for a minor boundary modification, prepared in accordance with Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines and including the revision of the buffer zones, after having considered all appropriate social measures, especially if any of these actions involve the displacement of people residing in the neighbouring areas of the property, for review by the Committee at a subsequent session;
  10. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session.
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7B.34

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decisions 42 COM 7B.14 and 43 COM 7B.72 adopted at its 42nd (Manama, 2018) and 43rd (Baku, 2019) sessions respectively,
  3. Takes note of the efforts made by the State Party to address the Committee’s previous requests and the recommendations formulated by the April 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission with regard to the protection and management of the property and the mitigation measures following the construction of the Orange Line Metro (OLM), and requests that the feasibility study for the remaining recommendations be conducted in close consultation with ICOMOS, and that its outcomes be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  4. Notes the creation by the Directorate-General for Archaeology of a Regulatory Committee for OLM-related operations and future projects, in an effort to enable informed decision-making processes, in compliance with the provisions of the Operational Guidelines;
  5. Regrets however that the State Party did not inform the Committee or consult with the World Heritage Centre or the Advisory Bodies at any step of these processes, and also requests that the State Party work in close cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS to assess all OLM-related operations and future projects, in order to prevent further damage to the property’s OUV;
  6. Reiterates its request to the State Party to submit the outcomes of monitoring activities to assess the impacts of the OLM, notably concerning the mitigation of the OLM’s impacts on the OUV of the property, and urges the State Party to implement all of the recommendations of the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission, and especially to report on its efforts to:
    1. Divert vehicular traffic away from the Shalamar Gardens by redirecting traffic in one direction, away from the component site, making the GT Road pass behind the newly constructed OLM viaduct, and by constructing an additional motorway further to the south of the property for traffic in the opposite direction,
    2. Divert vehicular traffic on all other sides of the Shalamar Gardens to the surrounding streets and introduce a Noise-Sensitive Zone around the component site,
    3. Construct a tube of soundproofing triplex transparent glass along the tracks between the Shalamar Garden and the Pakistan Mint stations, which could also help mitigate the visual impact on the component site, and affix glass curtains on the roadside and on the piers along the viaduct bridge to combat noise and air pollution,
    4. Address the impacts of vibrations on structures within the property, based on tests conducted after the completion of the OLM and while it is in daily operation;
  7. Also notes that a number of restoration and/or conservation projects have been undertaken at both component sites of the property, following the recommendations of the 2018 mission, including the preservation of the property’s perimeter wall at the Lahore Fort, a prototype project for the west segment of the Picture Wall, and the restoration of the Royal Kitchen;
  8. Further requests that full details of any ongoing or future projects be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, including preservation and restoration works for Dewan-E-Khas, Shahjahani Khawabgah, Kala Burj, Lal Burj, Moti Masjid and Makatib Khana, Arzgah (Tile Mosaic Laboratory), Akbari Hammam, and inside Alamgiri Gate and Loh Mandar, as well as a details on the proposed re-use of the Royal Kitchen of Lahore Fort as a night-time restaurant, and that no irreversible decision be made before positive feedback has been received from the Advisory Bodies, and also urges the State Party to prioritise the safeguarding of the attributes of the property’s OUV, including the integrity and authenticity of Lahore Fort;
  9. Requests furthermore the State Party to officially submit the revised Master Plan of the property to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies, and also reiterates its request that the State Party submit to the World Heritage Centre a proposal for a minor boundary modification, prepared in accordance with Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines and including the revision of the buffer zones, after having considered all appropriate social measures, especially if any of action involves the displacement of people residing in the neighbouring areas of the property, for review by the Committee at a subsequent session;
  10. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022, with a view to considering, in the absence of significant progress with the implementation of the mitigation measures recommended by the Committee and the 2018 Reactive Monitoring mission in order to address the ascertained threats to the OUV, the possible inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2021
Pakistan
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 2000-2012
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


top