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Ngorongoro Conservation Area

United Republic of Tanzania
Factors affecting the property in 2019*
  • Crop production
  • Governance
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation
  • Interpretative and visitation facilities
  • Invasive/alien terrestrial species
  • Land conversion
  • Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals
  • Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Challenging situation of community livelihoods; Condition and conservation of the Laetoli hominid footprints

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Geothermal energy development project (issue resolved)
  • Increased human population
  • Poaching
  • Spread of invasive species
  • Tourism pressure
  • Grazing pressure
  • Governance of the property and community involvement
  • Challenging situation of community livelihoods
  • Potential impact of lodge development project on the crater rim
  • Impact of project for upgrading Lodoare Gate to Golini Main Road and access road to Olduvai museum
  • Proposed museum building at Laetoli
  • Condition and conservation of the Laetoli hominid footprints
  • Management System/Management Plan
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2019

Totam amount provided to the property: USD 50,000 from Switzerland, USD 35,000 from the Netherlands, USD 20,000 from the United Nations Development Assistance Plan (UNDAP) and USD 8,000 self-benefitting funds from the United Republic of Tanzania in 2013-2014; USD 50,000 from the Flanders Funds-in-Trust in 2014-2015

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2019
Requests approved: 16 (from 1979-2014)
Total amount approved : 290,386 USD
2014 Building the capacity of local communities and ... (Approved)   30,000 USD
2009 Implementing Management Effectiveness Evaluations into ... (Approved)   14,960 USD
2004 The World Heritage site Ngorongoro Conservation Area ... (Approved)   19,294 USD
2001 Scientific Study in Ngorongoro crater (NOT IMPLEMENTED) (Approved)   10,000 USD
1999 Project Planning Workshop for Strengthening ... (Approved)   7,500 USD
1994 International Conference on Ngorongoro, in Bellagio, ... (Not approved)   0 USD
1990 Purchase of a Land Rover and radio equipment for the ... (Approved)   49,782 USD
1988 Purchase of 2 vehicles (one tipper truck and one 4x4 ... (Approved)   50,000 USD
1988 Contribution to the purchase of associated spare parts ... (Approved)   10,000 USD
1987 Purchase of a Land Rover for anti-poaching activities ... (Approved)   17,500 USD
1987 Participation of a specialist from Ngorongoro ... (Approved)   4,000 USD
1987 Additional costs of equipment for Ngorongoro ... (Approved)   2,000 USD
1986 Equipment to strengthen the protection of Ngorongoro ... (Approved)   20,000 USD
1980 Additional financial assistance for the preparation of ... (Approved)   7,000 USD
1979 Financial grant for establishment of a management plan ... (Approved)   24,950 USD
1979 12-month fellowship in law/administration for ... (Approved)   18,000 USD
1979 Drawing up by an architect-museologist of a project for ... (Approved)   5,400 USD
Missions to the property until 2019**

April 1986: IUCN mission; April-May 2007 and December 2008: World Heritage Centre/IUCN Reactive Monitoring missions; February 2011: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; April 2012: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission; August 2017: ICOMOS/IUCN Advisory mission; March 2019: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2019

On 1 December 2018, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, followed by an updated submission on 2 February 2019. A joint ICOMOS/IUCN Advisory mission visited the property in August 2017, followed by a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission in March 2019. All these reports are available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/39/documents/.

The State Party reports the following:

  • No elephant poaching was reported in the property during 2017-2018. Monitoring and patrolling efforts have been further strengthened, including employing more rangers, establishing additional ranger posts in vulnerable areas and collaring of five elephants. Two more ranger posts are planned;
  • The Invasive Alien Plants Strategic Management Plan has been updated and submitted to the World Heritage Centre;
  • The draft General Management Plan (GMP) has been shared with various stakeholders, and was submitted to the World Heritage Centre in January 2019 for review;
  • By government notice issued in June 2018, all roads in the property are now managed by the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA), bringing the heavy traffic along the Lodoare Gate to Golini Main Road under control;
  • An Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) on the Lodoare Gate to Golini Main Road was undertaken and submitted to the World Heritage Centre;
  • A feasibility study for the southern Serengeti-Ngorongoro bypass road evaluated two route options, and concluded the Maswa–Lalago–Mbulu–Karatu (Mbulu Route) as the preferred choice from the environmental, social, economic and technical perspectives and as most effective in reducing through-traffic traversing the property;
  • The development of the Laetoli Museum was halted until a Reactive Monitoring mission could visit the property.

The World Heritage Centre hosted a two-day expert meeting on the conservation of the Laetoli footprints and the museum project in March 2019, attended by the State Party, ICOMOS and ICCROM.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2019

The continued reporting of no elephant poaching and the State Party’s dedication to combat both poaching and invasive plant species in the property is welcome. The submission of the draft General Management Plan (GMP) for the property after a stakeholder participation process, and with commitments from both stakeholders and administration to jointly take responsibility for its implementation, is equally welcomed.

However, the 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission concluded that further action is required to combat poaching and control invasive alien plant species.

Tourism development also remains a threat. The mission was unable to access information on current and future tourism facility development, but reported a concerning increased visual impact on the property from tourism-related developments. The mission concluded that whilst the draft GMP has objectives to stimulate further tourism development to the property, it lacks integrated guidelines and policies on tourism capacity. The threat posed by increased visitor numbers is compounded by the continued lack of an adequate tourism strategy for the property. The GMP also lacks an integrated framework for crosscutting stakeholder engagement on issues of mutual interest.

The mission concluded that a mechanism to monitor and enforce the implementation of the conclusions of studies assessing new tourism infrastructure is urgently required.

Cultural heritage is not yet receiving the levels of resources required for its conservation and the 2019 mission recommended that a conservation strategy, including a database of archaeological and cultural sites urgently be developed and implemented, augmented by additional resources. The mission recommended that:

  • Ethnographical studies of the changing cultural practices and belief system of the inhabitants of the property be undertaken to inform future conservation policies;
  • The Multiple Land Use Model review be completed as an important tool to sustain the livelihoods of the traditional pastoral residents in the property;
  • Alternative approaches to the current voluntary inhabitant resettlement to outside the property be explored by the State Party, together with local communities and other stakeholders.

The March 2019 expert meeting concluded that the old and newly discovered Laetoli footprints require additional research and information to assess their stability, and prior to making any decision on future conservation measures. The meeting adopted a way forward proposed by the Advisory Bodies, including assessing and learning from other similar cases, development of case-scenarios for conservation and interpretation options and their feasibility, peer review, and a concluding meeting to be held in Tanzania in the latter half of 2019.

The 2017 Advisory mission had recommended that the road upgrade project be adjusted to avoid potential impacts on the natural and cultural heritage values of the property. The 2019 mission recommended that the road upgrade be halted until the 2017 Advisory mission recommendations had been addressed and the feasibility study for the southern bypass road submitted for review by the Advisory Bodies. Traffic monitoring and speed calming measures are urgently required.

The 2019 mission expressed its concern that many of the previous Committee Decisions are not being implemented, leading to a gradual and cumulative increase of threats to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property. It is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to undertake a Strategic Environmental Assessment, which includes a Heritage Impact Assessment and addresses all current and planned projects in the property and assesses their individual and cumulative impact on the OUV, for submission to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2019
43 COM 7B.39
Ngorongoro Conservation Area (United Republic of Tanzania) (C/N 39bis)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7B.Add.2,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7B.39, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Welcomes the submission of the draft General Management Plan (GMP) for the property, the completion of the feasibility study for the southern bypass road, as well as the State Party’s temporary halting of the Laetoli museum project and its subsequent positive engagement with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies towards developing appropriate conservation perspectives for the Laetoli footprints, including a methodology proposed for the way forward on the project;
  4. Acknowledges the State Party’s continuing commitment to combatting animal poaching and control of invasive alien plant species, but notes the 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission findings that general poaching and the spread of invasive alien plant species persist, and urges the State Party to further enhance its efforts to combat these threats to the property, including through stakeholder awareness-raising;
  5. Also notes the recommendations of both the 2017 Advisory mission and 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission, and requests the State Party to implement all their recommendations;
  6. Notes the reported continuing work on the surfacing of roads in the property while the State Party is addressing the recommendations of the 2017 Advisory mission, including the submission of the feasibility study for the southern bypass road, and also requests the State Party to urgently submit to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, the details of the surveys and studies that were recommended by the 2017 mission before construction works commence;
  7. Further notes that the management system requires further augmentation to efficiently balance the conservation of the OUV of the property with other activities such as tourism, and further requests the State Party to develop and submit to the World Heritage Centre, the following to complement the draft GMP:
    1. An action plan and timeline for implementation of past Committee Decisions,
    2. A framework for stakeholder engagement that enables cross-cutting engagement on matters of mutual interest,
    3. Integrated policies and guidelines on tourism carrying capacity,
    4. Monitoring and enforcement mechanisms which ensure compliance with the conclusions and mitigation measures of validated impact assessment studies,
    5. Mechanisms for traffic monitoring, including regulation of speed and driving behaviour;
  8. Encourages the State Party to augment the resources currently dedicated to cultural heritage preservation in the property, and to develop and maintain a database of archaeological attributes and other cultural sites in the property;
  9. Also encourages the State Party to engage local communities and other stakeholders in exploring alternative livelihood solutions to its current voluntary resettlement scheme consistent with the policies of the Convention and relevant international norms;
  10. Also notes with concern that the 2019 mission concluded that:
    1. There is a gradual and cumulative increase in threats to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property due to previous Committee Decisions not being implemented,
    2. There is a need for a mechanism to monitor and enforce compliance with the conclusions of impact assessment studies in the implementation of projects;
  11. Requests moreover the State Party to undertake a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of current and planned projects in the property, including a Heritage Impact Assessment, that assesses their individual and cumulative impacts on the OUV of the property, to be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  12. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2021.
Draft Decision: 43 COM 7B.39

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7B.Add.2,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7B.39, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Welcomes the submission of the draft General Management Plan (GMP) for the property, the completion of the feasibility study for the southern bypass road, as well as the State Party’s temporary halting of the Laetoli museum project and its subsequent positive engagement with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies towards developing appropriate conservation perspectives for the Laetoli footprints, including a methodology proposed for the way forward on the project;
  4. Acknowledges the State Party’s continuing commitment to combatting animal poaching and control of invasive alien plant species, but notes the 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission findings that general poaching and the spread of invasive alien plant species persist, and urges the State Party to further enhance its efforts to combat these threats to the property, including through stakeholder awareness-raising;
  5. Also notes the recommendations of both the 2017 Advisory mission and 2019 Reactive Monitoring mission, and requests the State Party to implement all their recommendations;
  6. Notes with concern the reported continuing work on the surfacing of roads in the property before the recommendations of the 2017 Advisory mission have been fully addressed, including the submission of the feasibility study for the southern bypass road, and also requests the State Party to urgently submit to the World Heritage for review by the Advisory Bodies, the details of the surveys and studies that were recommended by the 2017 mission before construction of the road upgrade project could commence;
  7. Further notes that the management system requires further augmentation to efficiently balance the conservation of the OUV of the property with other activities such as tourism, and further requests the State Party to develop and submit to the World Heritage Centre, the following to complement the draft GMP:
    1. An action plan and timeline for implementation of past Committee Decisions,
    2. A framework for stakeholder engagement that enables cross-cutting engagement on matters of mutual interest,
    3. Integrated policies and guidelines on tourism carrying capacity,
    4. Monitoring and enforcement mechanisms which ensure compliance with the conclusions and mitigation measures of validated impact assessment studies,
    5. Mechanisms for traffic monitoring, including regulation of speed and driving behaviour;
  8. Encourages the State Party to augment the resources currently dedicated to cultural heritage preservation in the property, and to develop and maintain a database of archaeological attributes and other cultural sites in the property;
  9. Also encourages the State Party to engage local communities and other stakeholders in exploring alternative livelihood solutions to its current voluntary resettlement scheme consistent with the policies of the Convention and relevant international norms;
  10. Also notes with concern that the 2019 mission concluded that:
    1. There is a gradual and cumulative increase in threats to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property due to previous Committee Decisions not being implemented,
    2. There is a need for a mechanism to monitor and enforce compliance with the conclusions of impact assessment studies in the implementation of projects;
  11. Requests moreover the State Party to undertake a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of current and planned projects in the property, including a Heritage Impact Assessment, that assesses their individual and cumulative impacts on the OUV of the property, to be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  12. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2021.
Report year: 2019
United Republic of Tanzania
Date of Inscription: 1979
Category: Mixed
Criteria: (iv)(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)
Danger List (dates): 1984-1989
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2019) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 43COM (2019)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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