1.         Ancient City of Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic) (C 21)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1986

Criteria  (iii)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger    2013-present

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Destruction as well as ascertained and potential threats consequent to the armed conflict in Syria started in March 2011

Corrective measures identified

Not yet identified

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Not yet identified

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/21/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1986-2001)
Total amount approved: USD 5,250
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/21/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided: USD 95,255 by the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund 

Total amount provided to the six Syrian World Heritage properties: 200,000 Euros by the Italian Government; for movable and intangible heritage: 2.46 million Euros by the European Union, USD 170,000 by the Flemish Government, 63,000 Euros by the Austrian Government, USD 200,000 by the German Government; for cultural heritage under conflict: USD 200,000 by the Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage in Bahrain

Previous monitoring missions

January 2017: UNESCO Rapid Assessment mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Before the conflict:

Since 2013:

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/21/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2019

On 8 January 2019, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report for the six Syrian World Heritage properties, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/21/documents/, and includes updated information on progress and challenges in a number of conservation issues addressed by the Committee, as follows:

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

See General Decision 43 COM 37 of this Document on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab Republic.

The UNESCO-UNITAR joint publication “Five years of Conflict: the State of Cultural Heritage in the Ancient City of Aleppo” was launched in November 2018 and is available at https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265826?locale=fr. It is being translated into Arabic and French.

The strategic document entitled “Vision and Planning Framework” transmitted to UNESCO following the January 2019 international meeting is a comprehensive document that clarifies the way forward for the property, while providing a good understanding of the situation regarding rehabilitation interventions conducted between 1990 and 2018. It sets key objectives for several action areas, include the development of a reconstruction and recovery plan, the establishment of a new governance and planning framework with special area plans, building operational and financial tools for reconstruction and recovery, and the financing of reconstruction within a specified timeframe. Opportunities in the reconstruction and recovery phase are highlighted, as well as the need to reassess the integrity and authenticity of the overall property in the light of the damage it has sustained.

The elaboration of a Reconstruction and Recovery Master Plan for the city, and an updated Management Plan for the property are outlined as priorities in the document. Both of these, would facilitate ongoing collaboration at the property, which is challenging given the number of activities that need to be undertaken. It is recommended that these plans should be developed in line with the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (UNESCO, 2011) and in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies.

The DGAM, its partners and the local community need to be commended for the works carried out at the property despite the extremely difficult conditions and encouraged to pursue the activities as outlined in the Emergency Plan, 2018-2020 and the strategic document “Vision and planning framework”. It is to be highlighted that women and youth are actively involved, on a voluntary basis, in clearing rubble and other rehabilitation tasks at major historic monuments. This conveys a strong message about the importance of cultural heritage for Aleppo’s inhabitants and their commitment for its preservation. On the other hand, one of the major challenges is the lack of available funds. This may already have had an impact on the authenticity of the historic fabric since materials that are readily available on the market are being used. In addition, the lack of technical and financial resources has also resulted in further collapse of some historic structures where it has not been possible to implement consolidation work.

Given the immense challenges of reconstruction and recovery in Aleppo, and considering that it is critical to intervene swiftly during the early stages to avoid further irreversible loss, it is recommended that the international community should be encouraged to support the implementation of activities outlined in the “Vision and Planning Framework” document within the framework of the Emergency Plan and the DGAM Recovery Plan 2018-2020 for the property.

Given the instability of buildings within the property, it is recommended that the State Party undertake a detailed risk assessment for those most in need, and develop emergency measures to enhance the safety of inhabitants.

It is also recommended that the Committee encourage the State Party to finalize and submit to the World Heritage Centre for examination by the Advisory Bodies the Minor Boundary Modification proposal that is being prepared to enhance the protection of the property and preserve it from extensive developments in its setting.


37.     General Decision on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab Republic
Current conservation issues

The armed conflict in Syria started in March 2011 and has constantly escalated leading to significant violence and degradation of humanitarian conditions. It has inflicted damage on the inscribed properties as well as on the 12 sites inscribed on the Tentative List. Sites have been damaged by shelling, fires, extensive illegal excavations, military use, construction violations, in addition to intentional destructions and inappropriate use of archaeological sites by internally displaced populations. Some sites are still at risk, due to the conflict.

On 8 January 2019, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/43COM/documents/#state_of_conservation_reports.  This report represents an official statement of the Syrian authorities and collates available information from the branches of the Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) up to 31 December 2018. In some areas, access to heritage sites is extremely limited. In particular, the site of the Ancient Villages of Northern Syria remains inaccessible, which does not allow a full understanding of the extent of damage at this property.

The State Party reported on actions carried out by the DGAM, despite the difficult working conditions. These comprise monitoring World Heritage properties and cultural heritage in general, assessing damages, undertaking emergency conservation and risk mitigation actions whenever possible, and preparing inventories of the built and movable heritage. The report also stressed the extreme financial difficulties faced by DGAM in its efforts for the preservation of cultural heritage and the restricted international funding to support these efforts.

Updated information on the conservation of sites inscribed on the Tentative List was also provided in the report, indicating the following:

Activities undertaken by UNESCO

Activities undertaken by the Advisory Bodies

Members of the ICOMOS Working Group on the Safeguarding of Cultural Heritage in Syria and Iraq took part in a colloquium on the destruction of Syrian archaeological heritage in Paris and were invited by the Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums to participate in a workshop entitled "Developing the National Strategy for the restoration of the old city of Aleppo". Through its Project Anqa, which was run in cooperation with Cyark, and funded by the Arcadia Foundation, and which concluded in 2019, ICOMOS contributed to the 3D recording of seven at-risk heritage sites in Damascus and to the capacity building of Syrian professionals


Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The situation of armed conflict in Syria has affected the six World Heritage properties and has substantially limited capacities to adequately sustain and protect their Outstanding Universal Value. The properties have been increasingly threatened by ascertained and potential dangers, in particular the Ancient City of Aleppo, which has been extensively and increasingly destroyed, and which runs the risk of further irreversible destruction during the challenging recovery phase.

Illegal excavations across archaeological sites and tells in Syria are causing extensive and irreversible damage to those sites, many of which are on Syria’s Tentative List. They are also a major source for the illicit trafficking of cultural property, providing looted artifacts to be sold in regional and international black markets.

It is recommended that the Committee commend the DGAM, heritage professionals in Syria and local communities who have made sustained efforts to protect cultural heritage, to monitor it closely and to implement first aid measures for its safeguarding, despite the very difficult situation.

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies will continue to support the State Party in the identification of the necessary corrective measures and in the development of Desired state of Conservation statements for the removal of the properties from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR), for all six properties, as soon as the situation allows.

It is important that humanitarian and security related actions be carried out in coordination with cultural heritage stakeholders, to avoid further irreversible damages to the properties, and allow for undertaking first aid measures for its cultural heritage. Furthermore, it is recommended that systematic documentation of all damage incurred at World Heritage properties be duly pursued, whenever the situation allows, and that the Committee reiterate its call to the State Party to safeguard damaged properties through minimal first aid interventions to prevent theft, further collapse and natural degradation, and to refrain from undertaking other measures until the situation allows for the development of a comprehensive strategy and action plan that respond to international standards and high-quality scientific methods.

With regard to post-conflict interventions, it is recommended that the Committee call on the State Party to plan the future of the World Heritage properties according to international conservation charters and standards, in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies.

It is recommended that the Committee also call for international and national heritage professionals to continue to unite for the safeguarding of Syria’s cultural heritage; and to further support its safeguarding through earmarked funds and contributions to the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund.

Until conditions improve, it is recommended that the Committee urge all parties associated with the conflict in Syria to refrain from any action that could further damage the heritage of the country, in particular all World Heritage properties and sites included on the Tentative List, and to fulfil their obligations under international law, especially the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2347 of March 2017, in part by taking all possible measures to protect such heritage and preventing any damage that may result from targeting World Heritage properties.

It is also recommended that the Committee reiterate its suggestion that the State Party consider ratifying the Second Protocol (1999) of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.

It is further recommended that the Committee also call upon all parties associated with the conflict in Syria and the international community, in particular the neighboring countries to Syria, to ensure effective measures for the fight against illicit trafficking of cultural objects, in line with the UN Security Council Resolution 2199.

Decision Adopted: 43 COM 7A.31

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decisions 42 COM 7A.30 and 42 COM 7A.36, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Taking into account Decision 43 COM 7A.37, on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab Republic,
  4. Expresses its great concern at the impact of the armed conflict and resulting humanitarian crisis and irreversible destruction within the property, including of entire neighborhoods;
  5. Reiterates its deep concern about the instability of buildings within the property and urges the State Party to undertake a detailed risk assessment for structures most at risk, and undertake necessary emergency measures in order to enhance the safety of inhabitants;
  6. Notes the efforts mobilized by the State Party for the recovery of Aleppo since December 2016, encourages it to continue its efforts in documenting and assessing damages and carrying out emergency interventions defined in the Emergency Plan, despite the extremely difficult situation and commends the commitment of the local community who volunteer for the rehabilitation of historical buildings;
  7. Welcomes the Strategic document entitled “Vision and Planning Framework” and also encourages the State Party to implement its priority actions “in particular the development of a Reconstruction and Recovery Master Plan and an updated Management Plan for the property, and recommends that these should be developed in line with the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (UNESCO, 2011) and be carried out in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Calls on all UNESCO Member States to support emergency safeguarding and recovery measures outlined in the Strategic document entitled “Vision and Planning Framework”, within the framework the Emergency Plan and the Recovery Plan 2018-2020 elaborated by the Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums of Syria (DGAM), and also activities carried out through the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund;
  9. Reiterates its request that the invited joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission should take place as soon as the situation allows, in order to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the state of conservation of the property and identify measures needed to ensure the conservation and protection of the property even as rehabilitation and infrastructure development works are carried out in other parts of the city;
  10. Further encourages the State Party to finalize the Minor Boundary Modification proposal for the property, in line with Paragraphs 163-164 of the Operational Guidelines, and submit it to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2020, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  11. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  12. Decides to retain the Ancient City of Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decision Adopted: 43 COM 7A.37

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.2,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.36, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Deplores the conflict situation prevailing in the country, the loss of human life and the degradation of humanitarian conditions;
  4. Taking note of the report provided by the State Party regarding the state of conservation of the six Syrian World Heritage properties and the sites inscribed on the Syrian Tentative List, commends the Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) and all heritage professionals and local communities in Syria who are working on monitoring and protecting cultural heritage, for their sustained efforts amidst extremely difficult conditions, but expresses its utmost concern about the damages incurred and the threats facing these properties and cultural heritage in general;
  5. Urges again all parties associated with the situation in Syria to refrain from any action that would cause further damage to the country’s cultural heritage, and to fulfil their obligations under international law, in particular the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2347 of March 2017, by taking all possible measures to protect such heritage, including preventing any damage that may results from targeting World Heritage properties, sites included in the Tentative List and other cultural heritage sites;
  6. Also urges the State Party and the international community to include recovery actions of cultural heritage properties within the overall humanitarian, security and peace building response;
  7. Further urges the State Party to safeguard damaged properties through minimal first aid interventions to prevent theft, further collapse and natural degradation, and to refrain from undertaking conservation and restoration work until the situation allows for the development of comprehensive conservation strategies and actions that respond to international standards, in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Reiterates its appeal to all Member States of UNESCO to cooperate in fighting against the illicit trafficking of cultural property coming from Syria as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2199 of February 2015, and, in engaging in the protection of cultural heritage during armed conflict as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2347 of March 2017, and reiterates its suggestion to the State Party to consider ratifying the Second Protocol (1999) of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict;
  9. Requests the State Party to pursue the systematic documentation of all damage incurred at World Heritage properties, whenever conditions allow, to implement all possible risk mitigation measures, and to inform on the development of the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the properties from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and the identification of corrective measures for all six properties;
  10. Reminds the State Party about the need to submit to the World Heritage Centre, for examination by the Advisory Bodies, information on any future plans for major restoration or new construction projects, including infrastructure development projects, that may affect the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of World Heritage properties, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, before making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse;
  11. Reiterates its call upon the international community to further support the safeguarding of Syrian cultural heritage through earmarked funds or through contributions to the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund;
  12. Also reiterates its call upon the international and national cultural heritage professionals to unite for the safeguarding of Syria’s cultural heritage, and to pursue their ongoing initiatives in coordination with UNESCO;
  13. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the properties and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020.

Decision Adopted: 43 COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/19/43.COM/7A, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3 and WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3.Corr),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: