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Chan Chan Archaeological Zone

Peru
Factors affecting the property in 2018*
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Other Threats:

    Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices
  • Illegal occupation of the property
  • Unregulated farming activities
  • Rising water table levels
  • Delay in implementing protective measures (legislation and regulations already passed by the National Authorities)
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Fragile state of conservation of earthen structures and decorated surfaces due to extreme climatic conditions (El Niño phenomenon) and other environmental factors
  • Inadequate management system in place
  • Insufficient capacity and resources for the implementation of conservation measures
  • Increase in the levels of the phreatic water table
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4647

Corrective Measures for the property

 Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4647

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4647
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2018
Requests approved: 5 (from 1987-1998)
Total amount approved : 118,700 USD
Missions to the property until 2018**

1997: ICOMOS mission; February 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS and ICCROM mission; November 2010 and December 2014: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring missions

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018

On 24 January 2018, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, an executive summary of which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/366/documents/, which addresses the three main issues that the Committee identified in its earlier decisions as follows:

  • The updated Master Plan for the Conservation and Management of Chan Chan Archaeological Complex has been approved by all technical departments of the Ministry of Culture and the issuing of the final ministerial approval is in process;
  • The formal delimitation of the buffer zone and elaboration of its regulatory measures are still pending the response of the management office of the Trujillo Provincial Municipality’s Urban Development Plan;
  • Several observations were made by the Presidency of the Council of Ministers on the feasibility of the implementation of the draft regulations for Law 28261, which will address the issue of illegal occupations. In response, on 18 December 2017, the Minister of Culture established a Task Force that will report on the feasibility of the law within 140 days of this date.

Furthermore, the State Party reports on the implementation of the corrective measures as follows:

  • Public Investment Projects (PIPs) implemented in 2017 included research, conservation and enhancement, with recovery and restoration works in Huaca Toledo, Chayhuac An walled complex, Martinez de Compañón complex and Utzh An walled complex;
  • The Pan-American Conservation Centre for Earthen Heritage Sites (PCCEHS) implemented an extensive research programme, through the Earthen Architecture Laboratory, in order to improve the quality control of materials that are used in conservation interventions. The programme is aimed at the investigation of materials and techniques of constructions, located in different sectors of the heritage complex. Other activities carried out included the monitoring of weather conditions, gathering documentation, mapping projects and training programmes to improve the capacities of those in charge of physical and virtual documentation;
  • Awareness-raising activities included educational programmes for the neighbouring community, including students, teachers and administrative staff of educational institutions and associations surrounding the property (benefitting more than 5,000 participants in 2017), in addition to the promotion of traditions and historical knowledge (including training on the manufacturing of traditional boats - caballitos de totora);
  • Implementation of actions related to the existing Master Plan continued, including public use, risk management and museum development activities, as well as control of illegal occupation, encroachment, and urban pressure;
  • Adequate financial resources for the approval and implementation of PIPs in 2017 were allocated, amounting to more than 11 million soles.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2018

The State Party should be commended on the numerous activities that were implemented in 2017, and the considerable resources that were made available for the conservation and management of the property. This shows the high commitment of the State Party towards the implementation and provision of financial resources for the programme of corrective measures.

Particular mention should be made of the PIPs, which provide important financial support for research, aimed at conservation and enhancement programmes for recovery and restoration works in the complex. The research and monitoring activities of the PCCEHS are particularly relevant in monitoring weather conditions and their impacts on the earthen architecture, and determining best materials and conservation practices to be implemented in the heritage complex. The application of new technologies in mapping and documentation, such as the use of drones, is commendable.

The outreach programmes for educational institutions and the involvement of surrounding populations are  welcomed, in order to reinforce the cultural appropriation of the values that sustain the OUV of the property, such as the undertaking of workshops by the artisans that build the totora boats, establishing a direct link with nearby villages, including Huanchaco, where fishermen used the rafts on a daily basis.

It should be noted however that no substantial progress has been made in the implementation of the three main issues that the Committee identified in its Decision 41 COM 7A.26, namely:

  • Adoption of the revised Master Plan, which is pending formal approval by the Minister of Culture;
  • Delimitation and regulation of the buffer zone, which has been awaiting the response of the management office of the Trujillo Provincial Municipality’s Urban Development Plan since April 2016;
  • Approval of regulations for Law 28261 regarding illegal occupations, which is now pending the results of the Task Force that will study the feasibility of their implementation.

These are essential components of the programme of corrective measures that have been awaiting implementation for many years. Without them, the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) cannot be achieved. It is therefore recommended that the Committee urge again the State Party to proceed with these issues as a matter of extreme urgency. Without a conclusion of these matters and proof of their effectiveness, the Committee will not be able to assess to what extent the DSOCR, as defined in its Decision 36 COM 7A.34, has been reached.

It is also recommended that the Committee request the State Party to include in its next state of conservation report an assessment of the level of implementation and the effectiveness of all corrective measures, as adopted in Decision 36 COM 7A.34.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2018
42 COM 7A.11
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) (C 366)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7A.26, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Commends the State Party for the important progress made in the implementation of most of the programme of corrective measures, and requests the State Party to continue its efforts;
  4. Welcomes the research and monitoring activities of the Pan-American Conservation Centre for Earthen Heritage Sites (PCCEHS), and the implementation of a number of important conservation projects, public awareness and outreach activities with educational institutions and communities in the vicinity of the property;
  5. Urges the formal approval of the Master Plan by the Minister of Culture, and also requests the State Party to inform the World Heritage Centre immediately once this has been resolved;
  6. Expresses its most serious concerns about the continued delays in the formal delimitation and regulation of the proposed buffer zone due to the lack of response from the management office of the Trujillo Provincial Municipality’s Urban Development Plan, as well as in the implementation of Law 28261 that would address the matter of illegal occupation, which are both essential components of the programme of corrective measures, as adopted in Decision 36 COM 7A.34;
  7. Further urges the State Party, once again, to address these matters with the utmost urgency;
  8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above matters, along with an assessment of the level of implementation of the effectiveness of all corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  9. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
42 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/18/42.COM/7A, WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add and WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 42 COM 7A.1)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 42 COM 7A.2)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 42 COM 7A.5)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 42 COM 7A.8)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.45)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 42 COM 7A.9)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.46)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.47)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.48)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.49)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.50)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.51)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 42 COM 7A.17)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.44)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 42 COM 7A.40)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 42 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 42 COM 7A.19)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 42 COM 7A.20)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 42 COM 7A.21)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 42 COM 7A.22)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 42 COM 7A.23)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 42 COM 7A.24)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 42 COM 7A.25)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 42 COM 7A.26)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 42 COM 7A.53)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 42 COM 7A.13)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 42 COM 7A.14)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 42 COM 7A.15)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 42 COM 7A.3)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 42 COM 7A.54)
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 42 COM 7A.27)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 42 COM 7A.29)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 42 COM 7A.28)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 42 COM 7A.10)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 42 COM 7A.11)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.55)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 42 COM 7A.6)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 42 COM 7A.41)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 42 COM 7A.30)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 42 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 42 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 42 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 42 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 42 COM 7A.35)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 42 COM 7A.16)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 42 COM 7A.7)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.56)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.42)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 42 COM 7A.4)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 42 COM 7A.12)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 42 COM 7A.37)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 42 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 42 COM 7A.39)
Draft Decision: 42 COM 7A.11

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7A.26, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Commends the State Party for the important progress made in the implementation of most of the programme of corrective measures, and requests the State Party to continue its efforts;
  4. Welcomes the research and monitoring activities of the Pan-American Conservation Centre for Earthen Heritage Sites (PCCEHS), and the implementation of a number of important conservation projects, public awareness and outreach activities with educational institutions and communities in the vicinity of the property;
  5. Urges the formal approval of the Master Plan by the Minister of Culture, and also requests the State Party to inform the World Heritage Centre immediately once this has been resolved;
  6. Expresses its most serious concerns about the continued delays in the formal delimitation and regulation of the proposed buffer zone due to the lack of response from the management office of the Trujillo Provincial Municipality’s Urban Development Plan, as well as in the implementation of Law 28261 that would address the matter of illegal occupation, which are both essential components of the programme of corrective measures, as adopted in Decision 36 COM 7A.34;
  7. Further urges the State Party, once again, to address these matters with the utmost urgency;
  8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above matters, along with an assessment of the level of implementation of the effectiveness of all corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  9. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2018
Peru
Date of Inscription: 1986
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 1986-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2018) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 42COM (2018)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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