Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay – Mukkawar Island Marine National Park (Sudan) (N 262rev)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 2016
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger N/A
Previous Committee Decisions see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/262/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 29,500
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/262/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Previous monitoring missions
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
Factors identified at the time of inscription in 2016:
- Need to update the management plan for Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay to complete the preparation of an integrated management framework for the whole property
- Lack of high quality resolution maps that clearly define the boundaries of the property and the buffer zone
- Need to continue to increase financial resources and commit to maintain ongoing sustainable financing
Illustrative material see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/262/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018
On 26 November 2017, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, a summary of which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/262/documents/, and which reports the following:
- A draft Integrated Management Plan (IMP) for the whole property has been produced, which replaces the previous management plans of both components of the property, and covers the 2017 to 2021 period. The development of the draft IMP has involved a wide range of stakeholders, including local communities;
- High quality maps have been developed and drafts were submitted to the World Heritage Centre on 5 December 2017;
- As part of the Sharks and Rays of Sudan programme, the project “Strengthening Marine Protected Areas and Marine Ecotourism Benefits in Sudan” is working towards the declaration of Sha’ab Rumi as Sudan’s third Marine Protected Area (MPA). The State Party considers that this area may potentially also have Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), and intends to propose it for inclusion within the property in the future, after its declaration as an MPA. The declaration of Sha’ab Rumi as a MPA is currently in process at the Red Sea State Council, and may take several months;
- The budget for running costs of the property has been increased twofold from 5,000 SDG (USD 710) per month to 10,000 SDG (USD 1,421) per month in 2017. A request to increase this further to 15,000 SDG has been submitted by the Director of the property. In addition, 3 million SDG (USD 426,317) have been allocated for the property through a decision by the 1st Vice President of the Republic. Seventeen new personnel have been recruited, bringing the total staff number to 39;
- A concern is being raised about an increasing number of dive boats originating from Egypt, which are reported to cause problems by anchoring directly on top of dive sites, resulting in damage to coral reefs and disturbance of wildlife.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre and IUCN
The progress achieved with the development of high quality maps and a draft IMP for the whole property should be welcomed, as should the increase in staffing levels and budget although these remain insufficient. It is recommended that the Committee encourage the State Party to commit to increased resources for the management of the property and to finalize, adopt and implement the IMP.
The activities undertaken to identify additional areas with potential OUV for proposed inclusion in the property are also appreciated and consistent with Decision 40 COM 8B.6 at the time of inscription. It is recommended that the Committee also encourage the State Party to continue this work, and to seek technical advice from IUCN, if required. It should be noted that any extensions to the property should follow the relevant procedures for boundary modification or re-nomination, as laid out in the Operational Guidelines.
It is noted that Sudanese dive operators follow an informal set of rules, including the practice to anchor dive boats on sand away from the actual dive sites. It is of concern that foreign dive operators are not following these same rules, causing damage to coral reefs and disturbance to wildlife, which is also reported to have an impact on visitor experience. It is therefore recommended that the Committee request the State Party to establish, in close consultation with local dive operators and other stakeholders, a code of conduct including formal rules and regulations for all dive operators and ensure their enforcement, to reach out to foreign dive operators to raise awareness about these rules and regulations, and to establish appropriate mechanisms (such as fines and licensing systems) to avoid violations. It is further recommended that the State Party ensure regular patrolling to monitor any vessels operating within either component of the property.
The World Heritage Centre is organizing a technical workshop in Port Sudan for July 2018, in view of bringing together key expertise from the UNESCO Marine World Heritage Network and contribute to building local capacities for the management of the property.
Decision Adopted: 42 COM 7B.99
The World Heritage Committee,
- Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7B,
- Recalling Decision 40 COM 8B.6, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016),
- Welcomes the progress achieved with the development of high quality maps and a draft Integrated Management Plan (IMP), the recruitment of additional staff, and the increase in resources;
- Requests the State Party to finalize, adopt and start implementing the IMP as soon as possible, and encourages it to provide further ressources for the management of the property;
- Noting with appreciation the activities undertaken to identify additional areas of potential Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and the State Party’s intention to propose such areas for inclusion as part of the property, recalls that any proposed extensions should follow the appropriate procedures for boundary modification and/or re-nomination as laid out in the Operational Guidelines, and also encourages the State Party to continue this work and to seek technical advice from IUCN if required;
- Notes with concern the reported activities of foreign dive operators who cause damage to coral reefs, disturbance to wildlife, and negative impacts on visitor experience, and also requests the State Party to establish, in close consultation with local dive operators and other stakeholders, a code of conduct including formal rules and regulations for all dive operators and to ensure compliance, including by:
- Reaching out to dive operators, both national and foreign, to raise awareness about these rules and regulations and encourage best practice in line with international standards,
- Establishing appropriate mechanisms, such as, fines and a licensing system, to avoid violations,
- Ensuring regular patrolling to monitor any vessels operating within either component of the property;
- Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2021.