Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (Bolivia (Plurinational State of)) (C 567rev)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 2000
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger N/A
Previous Committee Decisions see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 4,000
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount granted: USD 870,000 for the project “Preservation and Conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” (UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust for World Heritage).
Previous monitoring missions
August 2002: Experts Mission; November 2007: World Heritage Centre Preparatory mission; February-March 2009: World Heritage Centre Technical mission for the implementation of the JFIT project; November 2009: World Heritage Centre/UNESCO Quito Office Monitoring mission; November 2010: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; August 2012: World Heritage Centre mission; April 2014: ICOMOS Advisory mission
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Lack of a management plan (issue resolved)
- Lack of coordinated conservation policies and interventions between the national government and local stakeholders
- Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation
Illustrative material see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2016
On 23 February 2016, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents and presents progress, as follows:
- A new technical and multidisciplinary team for the Archaeological, Anthropological and Administrative Research Centre of Tiwanaku (CIAAAT) has been designated in May 2015 and a new Director appointed. The new administration approved essential documents to strengthen the function of the Centre, such as the Staff Manual and a revised management structure for CIAAAT among other institutional documents (Staff and visitor regulations and protocols, Strategic Institutional Plan, Annual budget, etc.). Funding remains insufficient as the management depends entirely on income from ticket sales.
- The Management Plan of the property is being updated by CIAAAT, with the participation of local communities of Tiwanaku. The CIAAAT is also committed to ensure the implementation of the recommendations made by the Technical missions that have visited the property since 2009. In this regard no interventions or excavations are taking place, except for a preventive conservation project implemented as a matter of urgency to answer to several conservation issues regarding erosion, drainage and maintenance at the property. The elaboration on an Integral Conservation Plan for the property is planned to be developed within the framework of the Japanese Funds in Trust project “Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid”. Within the same project, the Risk Management and Disaster Preparedness Plan for Tiwanaku is being developed.
- It is reported that the establishment of an extended buffer zone of the property and its regulatory measures is a matter of concern to the CIAAAT and that this is a complex matter that will require strategies and actions to be engaged with the owners of the property’s neighbouring areas. A number of constructions are reported within the existing buffer zone that was approved in 2000, as well as the construction of two communication towers outside of the buffer zone but that affect the view from the site towards the village of Tiwanaku.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM
The significant progress on the improvement of the management structure at CIAAAT is well noted. Regarding the Management Plan for the property, an ICOMOS technical review of December 2015 concluded that the Plan needs to further define its objectives and strategies in terms of conservation, the statements of authenticity and integrity, the communities’ participation in the process, among others. While the CIAAAT new technical team is currently updating the Management Plan in order to better include the communities’ participation in the elaboration and implementation of the Plan, the remaining recommendations of the abovementioned technical review should also be followed.
It is recommended that the Committee commend the State Party for its efforts to follow the recommendations of the Technical missions; in particular for the halting of restoration interventions at the property until the finalization of the Conservation Plan. Furthermore, the intention to engage a specialist for the development of an Integral Conservation Plan for the property in the framework of the project “Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid”, under the auspices of Japanese Funds in Trust, is most welcomed.
While the finalization of the Management Plan and the elaboration of the Integral Conservation Plan are considered as priority actions by the CIAAAT, the inclusion of all stakeholders in the elaboration and implementation process is necessary. It is noted that the regulation of the land use of the surrounding areas of the property should be socialised with the communities concerned before any official establishment of the buffer zone for the property. Most importantly, the ICOMOS technical review underlined the lack of clarity of the legal status of the inscribed property and its buffer zone, hence the lack of definition of the regulations of the area. In the meantime, serious infringements on the existing and proposed extended buffer zone are of serious concern as they potentially compromise the integrity and authenticity of the property.
Decision Adopted: 40 COM 7B.2
The World Heritage Committee,
- Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7B.Add,
- Recalling Decision 38 COM 7B.39, adopted at its 38th session (Doha, 2014),
- Notes with satisfaction the efforts made by the State Party to strengthen the management structure of the property by reinforcing the multidisciplinary technical team Archaeological, Anthropological and Administrative Research Centre of Tiwanaku (CIAAAT);
- Acknowledges the progress made by the CIAAAT in updating the Management Plan and the development of the Integral Conservation Plan for Tiwanaku and urges the State Party to finalize this process within the framework of the UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) project “Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid”, with the participation of all stakeholders;
- Requests the State Party to provide an electronic and three printed copies of the draft revised Management Plan and of the draft Integral Conservation Plan, by 1 February 2017, for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
- Also urges the State Party to clarify the legal status of the inscribed property and its surrounding areas in order to establish an extended buffer zone for the property and take the corresponding required regulatory measures to ensure the protection of its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and conditions of authenticity and integrity;
- Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018.