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Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow

Russian Federation
Factors affecting the property in 2015*
  • Housing
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Erection of a monument in honour of Marshal G. Zhukov (constructed)
  • Ongoing and accelerated urban development pressures
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2015
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved : 0 USD
Missions to the property until 2015**

December 2007: joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS / ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission; October 2014 : ICOMOS Advisory mission 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2015

On 30 January 2015, the State Party submitted a boundary clarification, as well as a detailed state of conservation report that addresses the progress made with the implementation of the previous Committee’s decisions. An executive summary of the State Party report is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/545/documents/.

The State Party report informed about efforts made in addressing different recommendations related to the protection and conservation of the property. 

The State Party reported that the regulatory changes are currently being introduced to provide greater protection of the property and its buffer zone from adverse development and use, as well as that the Management Plan is planned to be finalized in 2016. A new project of protection zones of the property, including land use and town-planning regulations, to ensure regulatory protection from urban, economic and other activities which may adversely impact on the property and its buffer zone, is currently is being prepared for approval.

In May 2014, the State Party organized an international seminar on "World Heritage: preservation, management, popularization" held in the Kremlin Museum with the support of the UNESCO Office in Moscow.

The State Party confirmed a number of preparatory works planned within the property related to the reconstruction of the historically lost buildings in the Kremlin. For the first time, information on the demolition project of the Kremlin Presidium Building (B14), as well as the creation of a temporary park for archaeological surveys in the property was transmitted by the State Party to the World Heritage Centre on 16 September 2014. In October 2014, the ICOMOS Advisory mission invited by the State Party assessed the demolition project of B14 and the potential impact of the planned reconstruction on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, and provided a number of recommendations. The mission report is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/545/documents.

The State Party also reported on a project for a complex of the Moscow Kremlin Museums adjacent to the property, including the reconstruction and adaptation of the existing building of the Middle Trading Malls (Red Square, 5) and construction of a new building in the courtyard. The underground part of the new building will house the archival complex with storage areas and parking. As confirmed by the State Party, an evaluation of the impact of the above construction project on the property is being prepared. 

Information was also provided on the management system in place, as well as on completion of various restoration projects such as the Kremlin’s walls and towers, and the masonry and stone work at the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2015

The State Party’s efforts to develop a range of legal measures and protection mechanisms are acknowledged. It is recommended that the Committee encourage the State Party to adopt all the measures to increase the levels of protection to the property and its buffer zone and implement them as soon as possible.

For the first time since the inscription of the property, the State Party provided a very detailed description of all restoration and repair works accomplished or planned by the authorities. Progress on the management plan is welcomed. It is recommended that the Committee also encourage the State Party to submit the draft Management Plan to the World Heritage Centre for review by ICOMOS. It should be noted that the draft amendment to the Federal Law on the Cultural Heritage of the Russian Federation prepared by the relevant national authorities, following the 36th session of the World Heritage Committee in 2012, is still under consideration by the governmental bodies concerned. It is also noted that the special regulatory protection regime for all components-monuments of the property is planned to be approved by 2016.

There are a number of projects being proposed such as reconstruction of the historically lost buildings in the Kremlin, and the provision of additional facilities for Moscow Kremlin Museums at the Middle Trading Malls (Red Square).

The ICOMOS Advisory mission provided the State Party with a number of recommendations regarding the dismantling of Building 14, which is considered as acceptable. The mission however strongly advises against the proposal for the reconstruction of the historic buildings, originally destroyed in 1929-1930, as this would have a serious impact on the OUV of the property, in particular its integrity and authenticity. In view of the potential important archaeological layers believed to date back to the 12th Century, the State Party should be encouraged to establish an archaeological park providing information and interpretation of the archaeological layers which to date have not been explored. It is therefore recommended that the Committee request the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, additional documentation as specified in the ICOMOS Advisory mission report, for review by the Advisory Bodies.

The mission further noted that there is neither an Urban Master Plan nor a Conservation Plan which would guide and plan all conservation works within the property. Therefore, it is suggested that a coordinating council is established, as was recommended by the 32nd session of the Committee, and that an Urban Master Plan be developed as a matter of priority.

It is finally recommended that the Committee request the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, technical details, including Heritage Impact Assessments, for all proposed projects within the property and its buffer zone that may have a negative impact on the OUV of the property.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2015
39 COM 7B.82
Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow (Russian Federation) (C 545)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-15/39.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 37 COM 7B.83, adopted at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013),
  3. Welcomes the efforts made by the State Party to improve the protection of all components of the property and its buffer zone and encourages it to sustain these efforts and to secure the necessary resources and regulatory regimes to ensure no demolition, inappropriate development or deterioration to the heritage buildings which could constitute a threat to the property and its buffer zone;
  4. Notes that the State Party continues to develop regulatory regimes for the property and buffer zone’s protection and requests that they are introduced and implemented as soon as possible;
  5. Also requests the State Party to finalize, as soon as possible, the Management Plan for the property, including details of the protective measures provided in its regulatory regimes, and submit it to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  6. Takes note of the ICOMOS Advisory mission report and further requests the State Party to suspend the possible plans for the reconstruction of the historically lost buildings on the territory of Kremlin within the property, which could represent a threat to its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), and to:
    1. Submit the approved plan for the demolition of the Building 14, including a technical study on the impact of the demolition on the stability of neighbouring historic buildings to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies,
    2. Review the future plans, in line with the recommendation of the ICOMOS Advisory mission and to submit a project proposal for the vacant area including a Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA),
    3. Carry out archaeological studies of the area prior to the approval of any future projects and submit the results to the World Heritage Centre,
    4. Prepare a conservation plan for the property;
  7. Also notes the number of proposed developments and conservation works, including for the Middle Trading Malls (Red Square) and the Spasskaya and Borovitskaya Towers, and requests furthermore to submit to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, technical details, including HIAs, for all proposed projects within the property and its buffer zone that may have a negative impact on the OUV of the property;
  8. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2016, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above.
39 COM 8E
Adoption of Retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value
The World Heritage Committee,
  1. Having examined Document WHC-15/39.COM/8E.Rev,
  2. Congratulates the States Parties for the excellent work accomplished in the elaboration of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties located within their territories;
  3. Adopts the retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, as presented in the Annex of Document WHC-15/39.COM/8E.Rev, for the following World Heritage properties:
AFRICA
  • Mozambique: Island of Mozambique;
  • Senegal: Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary;
  • United Republic of Tanzania: Stone Town of Zanzibar;
ARAB STATES
  • Oman: Land of Frankincense;

ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

  • India: Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi; Kaziranga National Park;
  • Iran (Islamic Republic of): Bisotun; Meidan Emam, Esfahan; Persepolis; Soltaniyeh; Tchogha Zanbil;
EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
  • Belarus: Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh;
  • Belgium: Flemish Béguinages; Historic Centre of Brugge; The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and Le Roeulx (Hainault);
  • Canada / United States of America: Waterton Glacier International Peace Park;
  • Canada: Dinosaur Provincial Park; Gros Morne National Park; Historic District of Old Québec; Miguasha National Park; Old Town Lunenburg; Sgang Gwaay; Wood Buffalo National Park;
  • France / Spain : Pyrénées – Mont Perdu ;
  • Greece: Acropolis, Athens; Archaeological Site of Olympia; Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns; Delos; Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus;
  • Italy: 18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex; Archaeological Area of Agrigento; Castel del Monte; Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie with “The Last Supper” by Leonardo da Vinci; Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula; City of Verona; City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto; Crespi d’Adda; Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna; Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; Historic Centre of San Gimignano; Historic Centre of Siena; Historic Centre of the City of Pienza; Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-Eastern Sicily); Rock Drawings in Valcamonica; Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy; Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of Pantalica; The Sassi and the Park of the Rupestrian Churches of Matera;
  • Montenegro: Durmitor National Park;
  • Russian Federation: Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad; Ensemble of the Ferapontov Monastery; Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent; Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments; Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings; Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow;
  • Serbia: Stari Ras and Sopoćani; Studenica Monastery;
  • Slovakia: Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its Vicinity;
  • Spain: Aranjuez Cultural Landscape; Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco; Archaeological site of Atapuerca; Garajonay National Park; Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula;
  • Sweden: Engelsberg Ironworks;
  • The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region;
  • Ukraine: L’viv – the Ensemble of the Historic Centre;
  • United States of America: Pueblo de Taos;

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

  • Brazil: Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves; Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves; Central Amazon Conservation Complex; Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks; Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves; Pantanal Conservation Area;
  • Colombia: Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary;
  • Haiti : National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers ;
  • Honduras: Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve;
  • Peru: Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa; Huascarán National Park; Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana; Manú National Park; Río Abiseo National Park;
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis: Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park;

4. Decides that retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in Danger will be reviewed in priority by the Advisory Bodies;

5. Takes note that the World Heritage Centre, further to Decision 38 COM 8E, continues to harmonize all sub-headings in the adopted Statements of Outstanding Universal Value and updates names and sizes or buffer zones, as appropriate, following relevant Decisions of the Committee concerning changes of names and Minor Boundary Modifications;

6. Requests the States Parties to provide support to the World Heritage Centre for translation of the adopted Statements of Outstanding Universal Value into English or French respectively, and further requests the World Heritage Centre to upload the two language versions on its web site.

Draft Decision: 39 COM 7B.82

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-15/39.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 37 COM 7B.83, adopted at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013),
  3. Welcomes the efforts made by the State Party to improve the protection of all components of the property and its buffer zone and encourages it to sustain these efforts and to secure the necessary resources and regulatory regimes to ensure no demolition, inappropriate development or deterioration to the heritage buildings which could constitute a threat to the property and its buffer zone;
  4. Notes that the State Party continues to develop regulatory regimes for the property and buffer zone’s protection and requests that they are introduced and implemented as soon as possible;
  5. Also requests the State Party to finalize, as soon as possible, the Management Plan for the property, including details of the protective measures provided in its regulatory regimes, and submit it to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  6. Takes note of the ICOMOS Advisory mission report and further requests the State Party to suspend the possible plans for the reconstruction of the historically lost buildings on the territory of Kremlin within the property, which could represent a threat to its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), and to:
    1. Submit the approved plan for the demolition of the Building 14, including a technical study on the impact of the demolition on the stability of neighbouring historic buildings to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies,
    2. Review the future plans, in line with the recommendation of the ICOMOS Advisory mission and to submit a project proposal for the vacant area including a Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA),
    3. Carry out archaeological studies of the area prior to the approval of any future projects and submit the results to the World Heritage Centre,
    4. Prepare a conservation plan for the property;
  7. Also notes the number of proposed developments and conservation works, including for the Middle Trading Malls (Red Square) and the Spasskaya and Borovitskaya Towers, and requests furthermore to submit to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, technical details, including HIAs, for all proposed projects within the property and its buffer zone that may have a negative impact on the OUV of the property;
  8. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2016, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above.
Report year: 2015
Russian Federation
Date of Inscription: 1990
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(ii)(iv)(vi)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2015) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 39COM (2015)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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