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Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

Peru
Factors affecting the property in 2015*
  • Avalanche/ landslide
  • Flooding
  • Governance
  • Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Delays in reviewing the Master Plan and developing detailed yearly operational plans, and inadequate budgetary support for effective implementation
  • No evaluation of transport options, related geological studies, or the impact of bus traffic on increasing the risk of landslides
  • Lack of impact studies related to the carrying capacity of the Citadel and Inca Trail
  • Delays in the development and implementation of a public use plan
  • Delays in implementing urban planning and control measures for Machu Picchu Village, the main point of entry to the property, which has impacted on the visual values of the property
  • Lack of effective management of the property
  • Lack of risk management plans related to natural disasters
  • Inadequate governance arrangements including lack of adequate coordination of activities between different institutions and stakeholders involved in site management
  • Uncontrolled visitor access to the western part of the Sanctuary, related to the construction of the Carrilluchayoc Bridge
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2015

Total amount granted: USD 15,000 Extra-Budgetary Spanish FIT support for the social participation workshop requested by the World Heritage Committee (Decision 30 COM 7B.35). 

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2015
Requests approved: 11 (from 1986-2001)
Total amount approved : 166,625 USD
Missions to the property until 2015**

April, 2007: World Heritage Centre/IUCN/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; January 2009: World Heritage Centre/IUCN/ICOMOS reinforced monitoring mission; February 2010: World Heritage Centre technical emergency mission; May 2012: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/IUCN technical Advisory mission.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2015

On 16 May 2014, the State Party submitted a progress report and on 6 February 2015, a report on the state of conservation of the property, a summary of the latter is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/274/documents. On 17 April 2015, the State Party submitted additional information on the updated progress on the implementation of the recommendations requested by the Committee. The following information is provided in the reports:

  • Efforts to harmonize relations among the different bodies involved in the integral management of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (HSMP), and forming part of the Management Unit (UGM), are reflected through the reinforcement of the Steering Committee by Executive Order 003-2011-MC and the Inter-institutional Agreement signed on 15 April 2015, which establishes a calendar of action for the implementation of priority measures;
  • The harmonization of legislative framework will be completed through a study developed under consultancy which will be launched by Public Call of 27 April 2015. It is expected to have the study completed by 30 June 2015;
  • In addition to regulations applied in an event of damage to natural heritage, sanctions for violations of cultural heritage will be introduced through the recently drafted Regulations on Sustainable Use and Sustainable Tourist Visitation that will be approved by the Ministry of Culture in the first half of 2015;
  • The update of the Master Plan for Machu Picchu was finalized in December 2014 and approved by Ministerial Resolution 134-2015-MC of April 2015. This Master Plan is expected to provide for increased stakeholder participation in the management and operational strengthening of the UGM in the coming years;
  • The Master Plan also foresees studies for the development of the Western Access, which from pre-Hispanic times has been a point of entry to Machu Picchu. The Carrying Capacity and Limit of Acceptable Change Study and Regulations of Tourism Use have been partially drafted. A security module has already been established to facilitate and control access at this point;
  • Efforts have been dedicated to the defense of the ownership of the park, clearly established in national legislation, through court processes. Information has been provided regarding the updating of tourism regulations for the property and the Inca Trail;
  • The Public Use Plan for the HSMP has been partially drafted and is expected to be completed by September 2015 through a Public Bid, which will be launched on 1 June 2015. A number of consultancies have been contracted, including for Carrying Capacity Studies for the citadel and the Inca trails, for Architectural Ideas for Interventions in the Machu Picchu National Archaeological Park and for the construction of an exit ramp parallel to the Control Entryway of the Inca City. Expansion of the Hydroelectric Power Plant is also foreseen;
  • The Disaster Risk Prevention and Reduction Plan for Machu Picchu was drafted by the Multi-Sector Technical Committee in 2014 and was submitted to the CENEPRED in January 2015 for technical opinion and subsequent approval of the District Municipality;
  • The Municipality has finished drafting the Urban Zoning Scheme, which is pending approval by the Municipal Council and the mayor.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2015

Although significant progress is reported by the State Party, most of the deadlines requested by the Committee in Decision 37 COM 7B.35 have not been met and the results of the reported actions on the effectiveness of the management and the conservation of the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) remain to be demonstrated.

Despite the Committee’s request to harmonize legislative frameworks, the State Party considers that existing legislation is appropriate and emphasizes that the Executive order 003-2011-MC provides for the integrated management of the property. The matter of sanctions for damage both to the cultural and the natural heritage has been appropriately addressed by the State Party.

The update of the Master Plan was concluded in December 2014, approved by the UGM and approved by the Ministry of Culture. However, this was done without previously conducting a management effectiveness assessment, which was requested by the Committee.

The operation of the Western Access is foreseen in the updated Master Plan. Although there are some advances in the development of a Site Plan, several other actions are still in the planning phase, including the elaboration of a comprehensive strategy for the Western Access.

While the Carrying Capacity Study and the Public Use Plan have only partially been completed, other concrete actions are progressing and may not be in synergy with the future Public Use Plan, specifically: the call for the “Architectural Ideas Competition for Interventions in Machu Picchu National Archaeological Park” and the study of the exit ramp that would run parallel to the entry and control ramp. The reported expansion of the Hydroelectric Power Plant requires an in-depth analysis of potential impact, including on the OUV of the property.

Although the State Party has made notable efforts in addressing the requests of the Committee, and has stressed its commitment to finalize some key issues, more work is needed to ensure that adequate processes are in place to address the considerable challenges and threats facing the property.  Progress remains piecemeal with no robust over-arching structure that has the capacity to draw stakeholders together in a concerted way.

It is unclear what obstacles have so far prevented adequate progress being made – in spite of a clear Action plan, many missions and clear guidance by the Committee. Considering that there has been some progress, but that the requests of the Committee have not been met, the Committee could consider inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger at its 39th session.  However the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies consider that one further year of coordinated effort, with particular support from ICOMOS and ICCROM regarding cultural attributes, should be requested to seek to achieve implementation of the Committee’s decisions.  In view of the above considerations, and the still remaining potential threats to the integrity and OUV of the property, it is suggested that focused technical support should be offered to the State Party, in order to consider how obstacles might be overcome, and foster a momentum that might lead to a sustainable outcome. It is further suggested that the State Party put in place a workshop before the end of October 2015, via an Advisory mission, to assist this process. It is further suggested that a joint World Heritage Centre/Advisory Bodies Reactive Monitoring mission be undertaken in 2016 to review progress.

It is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to submit a report on the state of conservation of the property, for examination by the Committee at its 41st session in 2017, at which time the Committee might address whether satisfactory progress has been made to address the concerns raised, or whether consideration of inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger is warranted.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2015
39 COM 7B.36
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Peru) (C/N 274)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-15/39.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 37 COM 7B.35 adopted at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013),
  3. Welcomes the efforts made by the State Party towards the implementation of a number of recommendations of the Committee but considers that insufficient progress has been made over the past six years to address the considerable challenges and threats facing the property;
  4. Also considers that further technical support is needed in order to consider how obstacles might be overcome, and foster a momentum that might lead to a sustainable outcome;
  5. Urges the State Party to implement, in line with the proposals of the Emergency Plan 2009 and the Revised Action Plan 2012, all pending actions defined in previous Committee decisions, as a matter of priority, including:
    1. Harmonize legislative frameworks and strengthen governance arrangements for the property,
    2. Develop a comprehensive strategy for the Western Access before implementing actions that lead to the consolidation of this access,
    3. Undertake the Management Effectiveness Assessment in the framework of the approval process of the Management Plan,
    4. Finalize the Public Use Plan in line with the provisions of the Master Plan, including the definition of the carrying capacity for the Sanctuary and its components, and Machu Picchu Village,
    5. Finalize the Urban Plan Scheme for Machu Picchu Village;
  6. Recommends the State Party to invite, as a matter of priority, an Advisory mission with the participation of the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies, in the form of a workshop with national and local authorities, to seek finalization of pending actions mentioned above, and recommends that this mission takes place before the end of October 2015;
  7. Requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/Advisory Bodies Reactive Monitoring mission, early in 2016, to assess the progress made in the implementation of pending measures as noted above;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2016 a progress report on the implementation of the above measures and by 1 December 2016, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017, with a view to considering, in the case of the absence of substantial progress in the implementation of the above, the inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Draft Decision: 39 COM 7B.36

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-15/39.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 37 COM 7B.35 adopted at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013),
  3. Welcomes the efforts made by the State Party towards the implementation of a number of recommendations of the Committee but considers that insufficient progress has been made over the past six years to address the considerable challenges and threats facing the property;
  4. Also considers that further technical support is needed in order to consider how obstacles might be overcome, and foster a momentum that might lead to a sustainable outcome;
  5. Urges the State Party to implement, in line with the proposals of the Emergency Plan 2009 and the Revised Action Plan 2012, all pending actions defined in previous Committee decisions, as a matter of priority, including:
    1. Harmonize legislative frameworks and strengthen governance arrangements for the property,
    2. Develop a comprehensive strategy for the Western Access before implementing actions that lead to the consolidation of this access,
    3. Undertake the Management Effectiveness Assessment in the framework of the approval process of the Management Plan,
    4. Finalize the Public Use Plan in line with the provisions of the Master Plan, including the definition of the carrying capacity for the Sanctuary and its components, and Machu Picchu Village,
    5. Finalize the Urban Plan Scheme for Machu Picchu Village;
  6. Recommends the State Party to invite, as a matter of priority, an Advisory mission with the participation of the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies, in the form of a workshop with national and local authorities, to seek finalization of pending actions mentioned above, and recommends that this mission takes place before the end of October 2015;
  7. Requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/Advisory Bodies Reactive Monitoring mission, early in 2016, to assess the progress made in the implementation of pending measures as noted above;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2016 a progress report on the implementation of the above measures and by 1 December 2016, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017, with a view to considering, in the case of the absence of substantial progress in the implementation of the above, the inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Report year: 2015
Peru
Date of Inscription: 1983
Category: Mixed
Criteria: (i)(iii)(vii)(ix)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2015) .pdf
Report (2014) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 39COM (2015)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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