1.         Angkor (Cambodia) (C 668)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1992

Criteria  (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger    1992-2004

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1992-1998)
Total amount approved: USD 113,595
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: Approximately USD 52 million

Previous monitoring missions

September 2005: Technical advisory mission concerning the protection of Zones 1 and 2 of Angkor; in addition, the ad hoc experts of the International Coordinating Committee (ICC-Angkor) carry out monitoring of the property and of ongoing projects in the complex of Angkor, twice per year, on the occasion of the ICC technical and plenary sessions. 

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2014

In January 2014, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report. Progress in a number of conservation issues addressed by the World Heritage Committee at its previous sessions is presented in this report, most notably in controlling illegal activities within the property, and in developing the Angkor Heritage Management Framework.

Regarding illegal activities, the State Party’s report concludes that the overall situation of protected areas 1 and 2 is satisfactory, though “the battle is continuous” with many violations recorded during the period 2011-2013. In general, the number of illegal land occupations has greatly decreased due to the awareness of the inhabitants and the vigilance of the administration, according to the State Party, and there has been a decrease in the rate of deforestation undertaken to create farmland. Examples are provided of illegal structures that have been dismantled.

Regarding the Angkor Heritage Management Framework project, the State Party indicates that Australian consultants, the Autorité pour la Protection du Site et l’Aménagement de la Région d’Angkor (APSARA) National Authority, and international experts working under the coordination of the UNESCO Phnom Penh Office have devised a general methodological framework for the management of Angkor. The major tools developed for managing the property are:

During the final year of Heritage Management Framework project (which ends on 31 December 2014), the APSARA National Authority will ensure the implementation of the Angkor Tourism Management Plan, data input for and maintenance of the Risk Map, and appropriation and implementation of the Heritage Management Framework document.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

Significant progress has been made in the management and conservation of Angkor, most notably in developing a Heritage Management Framework. Progress was also made in controlling illegal activities within this large and complex property. A Tourism Management Plan and a Risk Map, which were developed in the context of the multi-year Heritage Management Framework project that will end on 31 December 2014, represent important tools for managing the World Heritage property (as does the Practical Manual for Integrated Site Management prepared in August 2013).  Furthermore, a new stone conservation course has been developed to train local technicians in stone conservation techniques, thereby increasing local capacity to care for this important heritage. 

It is recommended that the Committee commend the State Party for the significant progress made in the management and conservation of the property, as summarized above, and request that the major tools developed for managing the property be submitted to the World Heritage Centre, once they are finalized.

It should also be noted that in December 2013, ICC-Angkor celebrated its 20th anniversary. This exemplary international heritage conservation body, which is chaired by France and Japan and brings together donors and experts from all over the world, is also determined to continue fostering restoration and archaeological research at the property, training local conservation professionals, and ensuring sustainable development in the strategy adopted for the decade ahead. The success story of Angkor bears testimony to the tremendous potential of the implementation of the 1972 World Heritage Convention and international solidarity.

Decision Adopted: 38 COM 7B.8

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-14/38.COM7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7B.65, adopted at its 34th session (Brasília, 2010),
  3. Commends the State Party and the international community, including ICC-Angkor, for the significant progress made in the conservation and management of the property, notably in developing a Heritage Management Framework;
  4. Also commends the State Party for the elaboration of a Tourism Management Plan and a Risk Map, which are important tools for managing the World Heritage property;
  5. Notes the progress made by the State Party in controlling illegal activities within the property, and urges the State Party to further advance its efforts in this regard;
  6. Requests the State Party to submit the Tourism Management Plan, the Risk Map, and the Heritage Management Framework, as well as the Practical Manual for Integrated Site Management and the pilot project reports, to the World Heritage Centre, once they are finalized;
  7. Also requests the State Party to keep the World Heritage Centre informed on the progress made in the implementation of the above recommendations.