1.         Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (China) (C 441)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1987

Criteria  (i)(iii)(iv)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/441/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1997-1997)
Total amount approved: USD 0
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/441/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

N/A

Previous monitoring missions

November 2001: World Heritage Centre mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Earthen architecture conservation problems (issue resolved)

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/441/

Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 2002

Main issues:

Insufficient co-ordination of site management authorities and uncontrolled tourism development. Lack of a comprehensive management plan to ensure the conservation and sustainable development of the site.

New information:

A WHC staff member undertook an official visit to the property in November 2001. The mission noted that this World Heritage property consists of two parts, which are not contiguous.

The Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor is a mound separated into two parts by a main road. The southern part of the Mausoleum mound has now been encroached upon by illegal construction of outdoor souvenir stands. The northern part contains a factory complex, private housing and plantations, all of which are within the protective buffer zone of the site.

New excavations in and immediately surrounding the Mausoleum have proven the existence of rich archaeological assets in both the protective core and buffer zones. The mission recommended that steps be taken to expand the boundaries of the World Heritage site and consider the relocation of the intrusive and illegal encroachment.

Enhancement of the site interpretation was also noted.  The Terra Cotta Warriors Museum Complex does not have clearly defined protective core and buffer zones. Recently, permission was granted for the construction of a new souvenir supermarket immediately outside the museum complex. The mission commended the high standard of conservation measures and efforts made to enhance site interpretation of the property.

However, the mission was informed that major site development and management decisions are taken without full consultation with the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau, resulting with tourism development given priority to conservation needs. At the time of inscription on the World Heritage List in 1987, ICOMOS expressed serious concerns regarding the plans for constructing museums on site. ICOMOS, concluding that measures taken to protect the site were insufficient, recommended that a larger buffer zone be established.

Action Required

The Bureau encourages the Chinese authorities to:

The Bureau requests the World Heritage Centre to assist the Chinese authorities in the elaboration of a long-term comprehensive management plan for the property. The Bureau further requests that a progress report on measures taken to enhance the conservation and development of the property be submitted for examination by the Committee at its 27th session within the framework of the Periodic Reporting Exercise for the Asia-Pacific Region.”

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2002

N/A

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

N/A

Decision Adopted: 26 COM 21B.41

The World Heritage Committee,

Takes note of the state of conservation report and decision of the Bureau contained in document WHC-02/CONF.202/2, paragraphs XII.78-83.

Decision Adopted: 26 BUR XII.78-83

XII.78 The Secretariat informed the Bureau on the findings of the mission carried out to the property by a staff of the Centre in November 2001. The property consists of two parts: the Mausoleum mound and, 1.5 kilometers eastward, the Terra Cotta Warriors Museum.

XII.79    The Bureau’s attention was drawn to the insufficient co-ordination of site management authorities, uncontrolled tourism development and the lack of a comprehensive management plan to ensure the conservation and sustainable development of this World Heritage property.

XII.80    The Bureau was further informed that major site development and management decisions are being taken without full consultation with the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau, which had resulted in tourism development being given priority over conservation needs.

XII.81    The Observer of China assured the Bureau that the State Administration of Cultural Heritage and the local governments were placing importance on the management and protection of this site specifically following the recommendations of the UNESCO mission. The Bureau was informed that measures are being taken to expand the boundaries of the property. The Bureau was also assured that intrusive buildings and stands located within the protected core and buffer zones of the site would be relocated. The Observer of China expressed her Government’s appreciation to the World Heritage Centre for its support in mobilizing international co-operation and expertise to complement the national and local efforts in safeguarding this important World Heritage property.

XII.82    The Bureau recommended that the Government of China:

XII.83    The Bureau requested the World Heritage Centre to assist the Chinese authorities in the elaboration of a long-term comprehensive management plan for the property. The Bureau further requested that a progress report on measures taken to enhance the conservation and development of the property be submitted for examination by the Committee at its 27th session, within the framework of the Periodic Reporting Exercise for the Asia-Pacific Region.