1.         Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Peru) (C/N 274)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1983

Criteria  (i)(iii)(vii)(ix)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/274/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1986-1992)
Total amount approved: USD 161,625
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/274/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds


Previous monitoring missions

1997: joint ICOMOS/IUCN mission; October 1999: joint ICOMOS/IUCN mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/274/

Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 2000

Previous deliberations
Twenty-third session of the Bureau - paragraph number IV.50.
Twenty-third session of the Committee - paragraph number X.31

New information: As requested by the Committee at its twenty-third session, the Peruvian authorities submitted a report on Machu Picchu that includes separate information from the National Institute for Culture (INC) and the National Institute for Natural Resources (INRENA). The information provided can be summarised as follows:

Planning and management arrangements:

Access to the Historic Sanctuary and to the Ciudadela:

Works and projects with (potential) impact on the World Heritage Site:

Potential extension of the World Heritage site:

Overall state of conservation:

Several studies are being undertaken on eco-systems, species, and disaster preparedness.

Under the UNESCO-Kyoto University Project IGCP-425 ‘Landslide Hazard Assessment and Mitigation for Cultural Heritage Sites and other Locations of High Societal Value’, experts from the Kyoto University undertook a mission to Machu Picchu in March 2000. A preliminary conclusion is that ‘various phenomena suggest that the Machupicchu citadel is in danger of landslides’. Further detailed investigations will need to be undertaken.

All information on Machu Picchu was transmitted to IUCN and ICOMOS for review. The advisory bodies will present their views during the Bureau session.

Action Required

The Bureau may wish to examine information that will be available at the time of its session and take the appropriate decision thereupon.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2000

The World Heritage Centre received from the Peruvian authorities a report by the Machu Picchu Management Unit on the following points:

·         The Technical Committee for Touristic Use of the Cultural and Natural Heritage of the Nation was constituted.

·         The Management Committee for the property was put in place.

·         An Integrated Forest Fire Prevention Plan was approved.

·         The projects concerning problems with the management of liquid and solid waste were advanced.

·         The time limit for the implementation of the Regulation for the Use of the Inca Trail had to be extended to the end of December 2000.

·         Possibilities are being investigated of financial collaboration with the Japanese Government in the UNESCO-Kyoto University project on Landslide Hazard and Mitigation (IGCP-425).

The Management Unit considers it to be of great importance to conclude a study on the carrying capacity of the Inca Trail and the Acropolis of Machu Picchu.

At the beginning of September 2000, the World Heritage Centre received from the Comisión de Promoción de la Inversión Privada (COPRI) a draft version of the Terms of Reference for a study to identify a new location for the planned cable car in Machu Picchu. The Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) emphasised the importance of considering the project’s impact on the landscape as well as the necessity of extending the study of possible locations to areas other than Puente Ruinas.

Furthermore, information reached the World Heritage Centre that during the production of a beer commercial at the site, a crane that formed part of the film team’s equipment fell on the Intihuatana or stone sundial, chipping off a piece of stone. The Secretariat expressed its concerns and has requested a detailed report on this matter.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies


Decision Adopted: 24 BUR IV.B.49

The Secretariat informed the Bureau that, upon the request of the Committee at its twenty-third session, the Peruvian authorities submitted a response to the recommendations of the UNESCO-IUCN-ICOMOS mission to Machu Picchu in October 1999. The Secretariat also informed the Bureau that it had received from the Peruvian Permanent Delegation a request for collaboration in the further undertaking of geological studies on the potential of landslides on the slopes of the mountain on which the Ciudadela is located. These studies would be undertaken in the framework of the UNESCO – Kyoto University project ‘Landslide Hazard Assessment and Mitigation for Cultural Heritage Sites and other Locations of High Societal Value’.

Both IUCN and ICOMOS acknowledged the efforts of the government to address the recommendations of the UNESCO-IUCN-ICOMOS mission. IUCN, however, referred to the observations made by a mission that was undertaken by the Social Affairs Committee of the Finnish Parliament, in the framework of the assistance provided by Finland (Programma Machu Picchu). This mission noted as key issues the problems with the management of water and solid waste, increased tourism pressure and the delays in the implementation of the Programma Machu Picchu. ICOMOS supported these observations and made particular reference to the need to control urban development in the village of Aguas Calientes.

The Bureau took note of the report submitted by the Government of Peru in response to the recommendations formulated by the UNESCO-IUCN-ICOMOS mission of October 1999 and endorsed by the World Heritage Committee at its session in December 1999. It commended the Peruvian authorities for the actions taken, particularly with regard to the operations of the Management Unit and the regulation for the use of the Inca Trail (Camino Inca). It requested the authorities to keep the Secretariat informed on any new development in the management and preservation of the area and to transmit relevant studies and plans as soon as they become available. The Bureau encouraged the authorities to continue the implementation of the recommendations of the UNESCO-IUCN-ICOMOS mission and to submit a progress report to this effect by 15 September 2000 for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its twenty-fourth session.

The Observer of Peru noted that the Government of Peru is committed to the preservation of the site and the undertaking of the actions recommended by the Committee. He thanked the Government of Finland for its support.

The Delegate of Morocco noted that eco-tourism seemed to be a common issue for several of the sites discussed at this session of the Bureau and that experiences could be of use for non-World Heritage sites and Biosphere Reserves. IUCN responded that it had established a Task Force on Tourism and Protected Areas. Guidelines on this topic were being prepared jointly with UNEP and the World Tourism Organization and would be available in 2001.

Decision Adopted: 24 COM VIII.iii

Mount Emei and Leshan Giant Buddha (China)

Historic Sanctary of Machu Picchu (Peru)