1.         Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur (Egypt) (C 86)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1979

Criteria  (i)(iii)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1991-2007)
Total amount approved: USD 81,450
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: USD 100,000 for the Sphinx of Giza

Previous monitoring missions

1993, 1995, 1998, 1999, 2001

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2007

At the time of preparation of this document, the State Party had not submitted a state of conservation report on the property. By letter of 23 February 2007, a list of projects, in synoptic table form, was transmitted, concerning the archaeological excavations, restoration work and other activities carried out or foreseen between 1981 and 2008. No description or documentation was attached.

In response to the request expressed in the framework of the Retrospective Inventory, the State Party transmitted to the World Heritage Centre on 27 March 2007, a topographical map and a cadastral map representing the two components of the property. The map of the town of Memphis, however does not indicate a clear boundary. Furthermore, there is no buffer zone for the property.

On 4 April 2007, a three-page document was provided, entitled « Management Plan for the Town of Memphis », concerning a project for the preparation of a management plan for the site of the Town of Memphis (and not for the inscribed property), describing the methodology that should be applied for this “training exercise”. The duration of the exercise is foreseen for sixteen weeks and would be carried out in accordance with the model of the management plan prepared in 2007 for the Medinet Habou Temple, one of the components of the World Heritage property of Thebes and its Necropolis.

It was in 1990 that for the first time, the Committee requested that a management plan be prepared for the entire property. Assistance from the World Heritage Fund was provided for this purpose in 1991, then in 1993. During the 23rd session of the Committee in 1999, this request was reiterated, as well as in 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005. The transmission of this project document indicates the intention of the responsible authorities to initiate the preparation of the management plan.

Moreover, in another letter, the State Party indicated the preparation of National Guidelines for Site Management, as well as the creation of a training centre for this purpose and expressed its intention to prepare management plans for the six Egyptian properties inscribed on the World Heritage List.

Since the 29th session of the Committee (Durban, 2005), the State Party announced the reactivation of the road project to cross the Pyramid Plateau, rejected since 1995 by President Mubarak, and which had been the subject of several Committee recommendations in 1998, 2002 and 2003, until confirmation of the abandon of the project in 2005. Despite assurance from the Supreme Council of Antiquities of its rejection of the project, no additional official information has been transmitted to date.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM


Decision Adopted: 31 COM 7B.61

The World Heritage Committee,

1.       Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7B,

2.       Recalling Decisions 28 COM 15B.50 and 29 COM 7B.45, adopted at its 28th (Suzhou, 2004) and 29th (Durban, 2005) sessions respectively,

3.       Notes the State Party's intention to begin the preparation of a management plan for the town of Memphis;

4.       Urges the State Party to establish a similar management plan for the entire property and to transmit it to the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS as soon as it is completed;

5.       Reiterates its previous decisions requesting the abandon of the road project, tunnel or trench, crossing the Pyramid Plateau of Giza and requests the State Party to officially confirm this cancellation ;

6.       Also requests the State Party to keep the Committee informed through the World Heritage Centre, of any important projects foreseen in the periphery of the property, according to the provisions contained in the Operational Guidelines.